The Reading / Listening - Level 6

It is 25 years since the Berlin Wall came down. For many, it represented the beginning of the end of communism in Europe and of a world divided by the Cold War. The world stared down the barrel of nuclear conflict many times, but then hope sprang up as the concrete in Berlin came tumbling down. Two-and-a-half decades on, former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev warned that the world is on the brink of a new Cold War. Ironically, he made a speech explaining why in Berlin. He accused the West of not fulfilling the promises it made after 1989. He said that: "The world is on the brink of a new Cold War. Some say that it has already begun." He also criticised the United Nations for doing so little.



The Berlin Wall existed between 1961 and 1990. It completely cut off land access to West Berlin from surrounding East Germany. The western powers of the USA, Germany and France controlled life in West Berlin, while communist East Germany controlled the rest. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls. Anyone attempting to cross to the west was either shot or arrested by the East German border police. The wall came to symbolise the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. In 1989, a series of radical political changes occurred in the Eastern Bloc, which led to the Wall coming down and Germany being reunified in October 1990.

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Level 4  or  Level 5

Sources
  • http://in.reuters.com/article/2014/11/09/ukraine-crisis-gorbachev-idINKBN0IT02B20141109
  • http://en.ria.ru/world/20141108/195323771/Gorbachev-Worsening-in-Russian-German-Relations-Will-Bring-No.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Wall


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



The 40 Lesson Activities on the PDF Handout

WARM-UPS

1. THE COLD WAR: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about the Cold War. Change partners often and share your findings.

2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?

 

25 years / the beginning of the end / communism / nuclear conflict / speech / promises / land access / barrier / arrested / Iron Curtain / political changes / reunified

Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.

3. COLD WAR: How would a Cold War affect these? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

Will probably happen

Worst-case scenario

US-Russian relations

 

 

Peace in Europe

 

 

Terrorism

 

 

International trade

 

 

Nuclear threats

 

 

Global economy

 

 

4. PEACE: Students A strongly believe the world will be at peace one day; Students B strongly believe it won't.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.

MY e-BOOK
See a sample

5. CHANGES: Rank these with your partner. Put the biggest political changes at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • coup d'etat

  • introduction of military service

  • increase in taxation

  • lowering voting age

  • revolution

  • martial law

  • dictator takes power

  • war

6. COMMUNISM: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "communism". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.





BEFORE READING / LISTENING

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if  a-h  below are true (T) or false (F).

a.

The fall of the Berlin Wall was the end of the beginning of communism.

T / F

b.

The article said hopes got bigger after the Berlin Wall came down.

T / F

c.

An ex-Soviet leader made a speech in Berlin.

T / F

d.

The ex-Soviet leader said the United Nations hadn't done much.

T / F

e.

The Berlin Wall existed for nearly 30 years.

T / F

f.

The Berlin Wall became a symbol of the "Velvet Curtain".

T / F

g.

One radical change in the Eastern Bloc led to the fall of the wall.

T / F

h.

Germany was reunified in August 1990.

T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

1.

represented

a.

carrying out

2.

divided

b.

revolutionary

3.

former

c.

attacked

4.

fulfilling

d.

encircling

5.

criticised

e.

symbolised

6.

completely

f.

resulted in

7.

surrounding

g.

ex-

8.

radical

h.

sequence

9.

series

i.

split

10.

led to

j.

totally

3. PHRASE MATCH:  (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

1.

It is 25 years since the

a.

fulfilling the promises

2.

the beginning of the

b.

of nuclear conflict

3.

stared down the barrel

c.

political changes

4.

the world is on the brink

d.

guard towers

5.

He accused the West of not

e.

or arrested

6.

It completely cut

f.

Berlin Wall came down

7.

The barrier included

g.

of a new Cold War

8.

shot

h.

Bloc

9.

a series of radical

i.

end of communism

10.

Eastern

j.

off land access




 

GAP FILL

It is 25 years (1) ____________ the Berlin Wall came down. For many, it represented the beginning of the (2) ____________ of communism in Europe and of a world divided by the Cold War. The world stared down the barrel of nuclear conflict many times, but then hope (3) ____________ up as the concrete in Berlin came tumbling down. Two-and-a-half decades on, (4) ____________ Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev warned that the world is on the (5) ____________ of a new Cold War. Ironically, he made a speech explaining why in Berlin. He (6) ____________ the West of not fulfilling the (7) ____________ it made after 1989. He said that: "The world is on the brink of a new Cold War. Some say that it has already begun." He also criticised the United Nations for doing so (8) ____________.

 

 

former
end
promises
brink
since
little
sprang
accused

The Berlin Wall (9) ____________ between 1961 and 1990. It completely cut off land (10) ____________ to West Berlin from surrounding East Germany. The western powers of the USA, Germany and France controlled life in West Berlin, while (11) ____________ East Germany controlled the rest. The (12) ____________ included guard towers placed along large concrete walls. Anyone attempting to cross to the west was either shot or (13) ____________ by the East German border police. The wall came to symbolise the "Iron Curtain" that  (14) ____________ Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. In 1989, a series of (15) ____________ political changes occurred in the Eastern Bloc, which led to the Wall coming down and Germany being (16) ____________ in October 1990.

 

arrested
access
communist
reunified
separated
existed
radical
barrier

 





LISTENING - Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)

It is 25 years since the Berlin ______

 

a.  Wall came down
b.  Wall come down
c.  Wall comes down
d.  Wall coming down

2)

For many, it represented the beginning of the ______

 

a.  end of communism
b.  end by communism
c.  end from communism
d.  end for communism

3)

The world stared down the barrel ______

 

a.  of nuclear conflicts
b.  of nuclear conflict
c.  of nuclear conflicted
d.  of nuclear conflicting

4)

Gorbachev warned that the world is on ______ Cold War

 

a.  the blink of a new
b.  the bring of a new
c.  the drink of a new
d.  the brink of a new

5)

He accused the West of not fulfilling the ______

 

a.  promissory it made
b.  promised it made
c.  promise it made
d.  promises it made

6)

It completely cut off land ______ Berlin

 

a.  excess to West
b.  success to West
c.  assess to West
d.  access to West

7)

The western powers of the USA, Germany and France controlled ______

 

a.  life in West Berlin
b.  live in West Berlin
c.  live in West Berlin
d.  lives in West Berlin

8)

The barrier included guard towers placed along ______

 

a.  large concreted walls
b.  large concretes walls
c.  large concreter walls
d.  large concrete walls

9)

Anyone attempting to cross to the west was either ______

 

a.  shot or detested
b.  shot or arrested
c.  shot or composted
d.  shot or suggested

10)

a series of radical political changes occurred in ______

 

a.  the Eastern Bloc
b.  the Easterly Bloc
c.  the East Bloc
d.  the East turn Bloc

LISTENING – Listen and fill in the gaps

It is 25 years since the Berlin Wall came down. (1) ___________________ the beginning of the (2) ___________________ Europe and of a world divided by the Cold War. The world stared down the barrel of nuclear conflict many times, but then (3) ___________________ the concrete in Berlin came tumbling down. Two-and-a-half decades on, former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev warned that the world (4) ___________________ new Cold War. Ironically, he made a speech explaining why in Berlin. He accused the West (5) ___________________ it made after 1989. He said that: "The world is on the brink of a new Cold War. Some say that it has already begun." He also criticised the United Nations (6) ___________________.

The Berlin Wall existed between 1961 and 1990. (7) ___________________ access to West Berlin (8) ___________________ Germany. The western powers of the USA, Germany and France controlled life in West Berlin, while communist East Germany (9) ___________________. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls. Anyone attempting to cross to the west was (10) ___________________ by the East German border police. The wall (11) ___________________ the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. In 1989, a series of radical political changes occurred in the Eastern Bloc, which led to the Wall coming down and Germany (12) ___________________ October 1990.





COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

1.

What did the fall of the wall represent the beginning of?

2.

What danger did the world face many times during the Cold War?

3.

What is the name of the ex-Soviet leader?

4.

What did the leader say the West had not fulfilled?

5.

Who did the former Soviet leader criticise?

6.

What did the Berlin Wall cut off to West Berlin?

7.

Who controlled life in East Berlin during the Cold War?

8.

What did border police do to those trying to flee to the West?

9.

When did a series of major political changes take place?

10.

In what month did German reunification take place?

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ

1.

What did the fall of the wall represent the beginning of?

6.

What did the Berlin Wall cut off to West Berlin?

 

a) the end of communism
b) things to come
c) the Warm War
d) defrosting

 

a) Internet connections
b) relations
c) electricity
d) land access

2.

What danger did the world face many times during the Cold War?

7.

Who controlled life in East Berlin during the Cold War?

 

a) running out of heating fuel
b) acid rain
c) nuclear conflict
d) a new ice age

 

a) Western powers
b) Yugoslavia
c) East Germany
d) Russia

3.

What is the name of the ex-Soviet leader?

8.

What did border police do to those trying to flee to the West?

 

a) Yuri Andropov
b) Konstantin Chernenko
c) Boris Yeltsin
d) Mikhail Gorbachev

 

a) set dogs on them
b) shoot or arrest them
c) interrogate them
d) chase them

4.

What did the leader say the West had not fulfilled?

9.

When did a series of major political changes take place?

 

a) dreams
b) promises
c) a contract
d) peace

 

a) 1987
b) 1988
c) 1989
d) 1990

5.

Who did the former Soviet leader criticise?

10.

In what month did German reunification take place?

 

a) the United Nations
b) Barack Obama
c) England and Germany
d) current Russian leaders

 

a) February
b) October
c) July
d) August

ROLE PLAY

Role  A – Increased taxation

You think increased taxation is the most serious political change. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things are not so serious. Also, tell the others which is the least serious of these (and why): the lowering of the voting age, the introduction of military service or martial law.

Role  B – Lowering of voting age

You think the lowering of the voting age is the most serious political change. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things are not so serious. Also, tell the others which is the least serious of these (and why): increased taxation, the introduction of military service or martial law.

Role  C – Introduction of military service

You think the introduction of military service is the most serious political change. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things are not so serious. Also, tell the others which is the least serious of these (and why): the lowering of the voting age, increased taxation or martial law.

Role  D – Martial law

You think martial law is the most serious political change. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things are not so serious. Also, tell the others which is the least serious of these (and why):  the lowering of the voting age, the introduction of military service or increased taxation.





AFTER READING / LISTENING

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words 'cold' and 'war'.

cold

war

 

 

  • Share your findings with your partners.
  • Make questions using the words you found.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

  • Share your questions with other classmates / groups.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

  • 25
  • stared
  • hope
  • warned
  • promises
  • little
  • cut
  • powers
  • while
  • large
  • during
  • 1990

THE COLD WAR SURVEY

Write five GOOD questions about the Cold War in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper.

When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

 

STUDENT 1

_____________

STUDENT 2

_____________

STUDENT 3

_____________

Q.1.

 

 

 

 

Q.2.

 

 

 

 

Q.3.

 

 

 

 

Q.4.

 

 

 

 

Q.5.

 

 

 

 

  • Now return to your original partner and share and talk about what you found out. Change partners often.
  • Make mini-presentations to other groups on your findings.

THE COLD WAR DISCUSSION

STUDENT A's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

1)

What did you think when you read the headline?

2)

What springs to mind when you hear the word 'communism'?

3)

What do you know about the Cold War?

4)

What do you think of Mikhail Gorbachev's warning?

5)

How has the world changed since the Berlin Wall came down?

6)

Why is there such division between nations?

7)

Who does your country not get on with, and why?

8)

What are the bad things about a Cold War?

9)

What more should the West have done to help after 1989?

10)

What more should the United Nations have done?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

11)

Did you like reading this article? Why/not?

12)

What do you know about the division of Berlin during the Cold War?

13)

What is communism?

14)

Why is the Cold War returning today?

15)

What do you think of the name 'Iron Curtain'?

16)

What political system is best, capitalism or communism?

17)

Is capital more important than community?

18)

What do leaders need to do to bring more world peace?

19)

What changes could stop another Cold War?

20)

What questions would you like to ask Mikhail Gorbachev?





DISCUSSION (Write your own questions)

STUDENT A's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

LANGUAGE - CLOZE

It is 25 years since the Berlin Wall (1) ____ down. For many, it represented the beginning of the end of communism in Europe and of a world (2) ____ by the Cold War. The world (3) ____ down the barrel of nuclear conflict many times, but then hope sprang up as the concrete in Berlin came tumbling down. Two-and-a-half decades on, (4) ____ Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev warned that the world is on the brink of a new Cold War. Ironically, he made a speech explaining why in Berlin. He accused the West of not (5) ____ the promises it made after 1989. He said that: "The world is on the brink of a new Cold War. Some say that it has already begun." He also criticised the United Nations for doing so (6) ____.

The Berlin Wall existed between 1961 and 1990. It completely cut off land (7) ____ to West Berlin from surrounding East Germany. The western powers of the USA, Germany and France controlled life in West Berlin, (8) ____ communist East Germany controlled the rest. The (9) ____ included guard towers placed along large concrete walls. Anyone attempting to cross to the west was either shot or arrested by the East German (10) ____ police. The wall came to symbolise the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. In 1989, a (11) ____ of radical political changes occurred in the Eastern Bloc, which led (12) ____ the Wall coming down and Germany being reunified in October 1990.

Put the correct words from the table below in the above article.

1.

(a)

comes

(b)

came

(c)

coming

(d)

come

2.

(a)

division

(b)

divided

(c)

divides

(d)

divide

3.

(a)

glanced

(b)

squinted

(c)

viewed

(d)

stared

4.

(a)

firmer

(b)

former

(c)

farmer

(d)

framing

5.

(a)

emptying

(b)

fulfilling

(c)

vacating

(d)

topping up

6.

(a)

few

(b)

much

(c)

little

(d)

poor

7.

(a)

assess

(b)

excess

(c)

access

(d)

success

8.

(a)

when

(b)

whoever

(c)

while

(d)

which

9.

(a)

dungeon

(b)

missile

(c)

variety

(d)

barrier

10.

(a)

border

(b)

rim

(c)

edge

(d)

side

11.

(a)

series

(b)

serious

(c)

cereal

(d)

services

12.

(a)

by

(b)

on

(c)

to

(d)

of

SPELLING

Paragraph 1

1.

the beginning of the end of mmsiounmc

2.

stared down the blarer of nuclear conflict

3.

Two-and-a-half ascedde on

4.

not ignlflufli the promises it made

5.

on the nkrib of a new Cold War

6.

He also dirtseiicc (UK) / rzcicdeiti (USA) the UN

Paragraph 2

7.

The Berlin Wall stiexde between 1961 and 1990

8.

completely cut off land cssaec

9.

large etcnorec walls

10.

loeisybms (UK) / iyozselmb (USA) the "Iron Curtain"

11.

a series of acradil political changes

12.

Germany being uridienef in October 1990

PUT THE TEXT BACK TOGETHER

Number these lines in the correct order.

(    )

say that it has already begun." He also criticised the United Nations for doing so little.

(    )

of a new Cold War. Ironically, he made a speech explaining why in Berlin. He accused the West of not fulfilling

(    )

towers placed along large concrete walls. Anyone attempting to cross to the west was either shot

(    )

The Berlin Wall existed between 1961 and 1990. It completely cut off land access to West Berlin from

(    )

changes occurred in the Eastern Bloc, which led to the Wall coming down and Germany being reunified in October 1990.

(    )

end of communism in Europe and of a world divided by the Cold War. The world stared down the

(    )

the promises it made after 1989. He said that: "The world is on the brink of a new Cold War. Some

(    )

barrel of nuclear conflict many times, but then hope sprang up as the concrete in Berlin came tumbling

(    )

separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. In 1989, a series of radical political

(    )

or arrested by the East German border police. The wall came to symbolise the "Iron Curtain" that

(    )

down. Two-and-a-half decades on, former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev warned that the world is on the brink

(    )

surrounding East Germany. The western powers of the USA, Germany and France controlled

(    )

life in West Berlin, while communist East Germany controlled the rest. The barrier included guard

1  )

It is 25 years since the Berlin Wall came down. For many, it represented the beginning of the

PUT THE WORDS IN THE RIGHT ORDER

1.

Wall    It    years    Berlin    down    25    the    came    is    since  .   

2.

of    It    beginning    end    the   the    communism   represented   of  .

3.

conflict    world    the    nuclear    The    down    of    stared    barrel  .   

4.

the   Cold  the  that  new   on   Warned  a   is   of  world   War   brink  .

5.

of   West   the   accused   He   made   it   promises  the  fulfilling  not  .

6.

and    Wall    1990    existed    between    The    1961    Berlin  .   

7.

It    off    to    cut    access    Berlin    completely    land    West  .   

8.

to    either    arrested    attempting    was    or   Anyone   cross   shot  .

9.

to    symbolise    The    the    wall    'Iron    came    Curtain'  .   

10.

political    In    a    radical    occurred   ,   of  changes   1989    series  .

 

CIRCLE THE CORRECT WORD (20 PAIRS)

It is 25 years since / for the Berlin Wall came down. For many, it represented the beginning of the final / end of communism in Europe and of a world divided for / by the Cold War. The world stared down the tubes / barrel of nuclear conflict many times, but then hope / hoped sprang up as the concrete in Berlin came rumbling / tumbling down. Two-and-a-half decades on, former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev warned that the world is on the brink / blink of a new Cold War. Ironically / Irony, he made a speech explaining why in Berlin. He accused the West of not fulfilling / fulfills the promises it made after 1989. He said that: "The world is on the brink of a new Cold War. Some say that it has already begun." He also criticised the United Nations for doing so little / few.

The Berlin Wall erected / existed between 1961 and 1990. It completely cut off land excess / access to West Berlin from surrounding East Germany. The western powers of / for the USA, Germany and France controlled life in West Berlin, while communist / communism East Germany controlled the rest. The barrier included / including guard towers placed along large concrete walls. Anyone attempting to cross to the west was either shooting / shot or arrested by / on the East German border police. The wall came to symbolise the "Iron Curtain" that separated / divorced Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. In 1989, a series / serious of radical political changes occurred in the Eastern Bloc, which led to the Wall coming down and Germany being reunified / reunion in October 1990.

Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.





INSERT THE VOWELS (a, e, i, o, u)

_t _s 25 y__rs s_nc_ th_ B_rl_n W_ll c_m_ d_wn. F_r m_ny, _t r_pr_s_nt_d th_ b_g_nn_ng _f th_ _nd _f c_mm_n_sm _n __r_p_ _nd _f _ w_rld d_v_d_d by th_ C_ld W_r. Th_ w_rld st_r_d d_wn th_ b_rr_l _f n_cl__r c_nfl_ct m_ny t_m_s, b_t th_n h_p_ spr_ng _p _s th_ c_ncr_t_ _n B_rl_n c_m_ t_mbl_ng d_wn. Tw_-_nd-_-h_lf d_c_d_s _n, f_rm_r S_v__t l__d_r M_kh__l G_rb_ch_v w_rn_d th_t th_ w_rld _s _n th_ br_nk _f _ n_w C_ld W_r. _r_n_c_lly, h_ m_d_ _ sp__ch _xpl__n_ng why _n B_rl_n. H_ _cc_s_d th_ W_st _f n_t f_lf_ll_ng th_ pr_m_s_s _t m_d_ _ft_r 1989. H_ s__d th_t: "Th_ w_rld _s _n th_ br_nk _f _ n_w C_ld W_r. S_m_ s_y th_t _t h_s _lr__dy b_g_n." H_ _ls_ cr_t_c_s_d th_ _n_t_d N_t__ns f_r d__ng s_ l_ttl_.

Th_ B_rl_n W_ll _x_st_d b_tw__n 1961 _nd 1990. _t c_mpl_t_ly c_t _ff l_nd _cc_ss t_ W_st B_rl_n fr_m s_rr__nd_ng __st G_rm_ny. Th_ w_st_rn p_w_rs _f th_ _S_, G_rm_ny _nd Fr_nc_ c_ntr_ll_d l_f_ _n W_st B_rl_n, wh_l_ c_mm_n_st __st G_rm_ny c_ntr_ll_d th_ r_st. Th_ b_rr__r _ncl_d_d g__rd t_w_rs pl_c_d _l_ng l_rg_ c_ncr_t_ w_lls. _ny_n_ _tt_mpt_ng t_ cr_ss t_ th_ w_st w_s __th_r sh_t _r _rr_st_d by th_ __st G_rm_n b_rd_r p_l_c_. Th_ w_ll c_m_ t_ symb_l_s_ th_ "_r_n C_rt__n" th_t s_p_r_t_d W_st_rn __r_p_ _nd th_ __st_rn Bl_c d_r_ng th_ C_ld W_r. _n 1989, _ s_r__s _f r_d_c_l p_l_t_c_l ch_ng_s _cc_rr_d _n th_ __st_rn Bl_c, wh_ch l_d t_ th_ W_ll c_m_ng d_wn _nd G_rm_ny b__ng r__n_f__d _n _ct_b_r 1990.

PUNCTUATE THE TEXT AND ADD CAPITALS

it is 25 years since the berlin wall came down for many it represented the beginning of the end of communism in europe and of a world divided by the cold war the world stared down the barrel of nuclear conflict many times but then hope sprang up as the concrete in berlin came tumbling down two-and-a-half decades on former soviet leader mikhail gorbachev warned that the world is on the brink of a new cold war ironically he made a speech explaining why in berlin he accused the west of not fulfilling the promises it made after 1989 he said that "the world is on the brink of a new cold war some say that it has already begun" he also criticised the united nations for doing so little

the berlin wall existed between 1961 and 1990 it completely cut off land access to west berlin from surrounding east germany the western powers of the usa germany and france controlled life in west berlin while communist east germany controlled the rest the barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls anyone attempting to cross to the west was either shot or arrested by the east german border police the wall came to symbolise the "iron curtain" that separated western europe and the eastern bloc during the cold war in 1989 a series of radical political changes occurred in the eastern bloc which led to the wall coming down and germany being reunified in october 1990





PUT A SLASH ( / ) WHERE THE SPACES ARE

Itis25yearssincetheBerlinWallcamedown.Formany,itrepresentedth
ebeginningoftheendofcommunisminEuropeandofaworlddividedbyt
heColdWar.Theworldstareddownthebarrelofnuclearconflictmanyti
mes,butthenhopesprangupastheconcreteinBerlincametumblingdo
wn.Two-and-a-halfdecadeson,formerSovietleaderMikhailGorbache
vwarnedthattheworldisonthebrinkofanewColdWar.Ironically,hema
deaspeechexplainingwhyinBerlin.HeaccusedtheWestofnotfulfillingt
hepromisesitmadeafter1989.Hesaidthat:"Theworldisonthebrinkofa
newColdWar.Somesaythatithasalreadybegun."HealsocriticisedtheU
nitedNationsfordoingsolittle.TheBerlinWallexistedbetween1961and
1990.ItcompletelycutofflandaccesstoWestBerlinfromsurroundingE
astGermany.ThewesternpowersoftheUSA,GermanyandFrancecontr
olledlifeinWestBerlin,whilecommunistEastGermanycontrolledthere
st.Thebarrierincludedguardtowersplacedalonglargeconcretewalls.A
nyoneattemptingtocrosstothewestwaseithershotorarrestedbytheEa
stGermanborderpolice.Thewallcametosymbolisethe"IronCurtain"th
atseparatedWesternEuropeandtheEasternBlocduringtheColdWar.I
n1989,aseriesofradicalpoliticalchangesoccurredintheEasternBloc,w
hichledtotheWallcomingdownandGermanybeingreunifiedinOctober
1990.

FREE WRITING

Write about the Cold War for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner's paper.

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ACADEMIC WRITING

Countries should follow what the United Nations decides. Discuss.

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HOMEWORK

1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.

2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about the Cold War. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.

3. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: Make a poster about international relations. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?

4. COLD WAR: Write a magazine article about a possible new Cold War. Include imaginary interviews with world leaders.

Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).

5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.

6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on international relations. Ask him/her three questions about the Cold War. Give him/her three of your ideas on how to avert it. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

ANSWERS

TRUE / FALSE (p.4)

a

F

b

T

c

T

d

T

e

T

f

F

g

F

h

F

SYNONYM MATCH (p.4)

1.

represented

a.

symbolised

2.

divided

b.

split

3.

former

c.

ex-

4.

fulfilling

d.

carrying out

5.

criticised

e.

attacked

6.

completely

f.

totally

7.

surrounding

g.

encircling

8.

radical

h.

revolutionary

9.

series

i.

sequence

10.

led to

j.

resulted in

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS (p.8)

1.

The end of communism

2.

Nuclear conflict

3.

Mikhail Gorbachev

4.

Promises

5.

The United Nations

6.

Land access

7.

East Germany

8.

Shoot or arrest them

9.

In 1989

10.

October

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ (p.9)

1.

a

2.

c

3.

d

4.

b

5.

a

6.

d

7.

c

8.

b

9.

c

10.

b

ALL OTHER EXERCISES

Please check for yourself by looking at the Article on page 2.
(It's good for your English ;-)

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