The Reading / Listening - Level 6

Drivers the world over may soon have respite from potholes and cracks in the road. Scientists from the universities of Bath, Cambridge and Cardiff have come up with a novel and innovative solution to plugging gaps and holes in roads and highways. They have created a bacteria-filled concrete to prevent cracks in a road from becoming larger. The concrete is full of bacteria that open when water seeps into a crack. The bacteria burst open and inject limestone into the crack, thus filling and repairing it to avert more serious damage. The scientists believe their discovery could considerably increase the lifespan of roads, reduce repairs, and lower roadwork costs by up to 50 per cent.



The new concrete could be good news for the environment. Scientists estimate that over seven per cent of the world's CO2 emissions come from the production of cement. If less cement is needed to repair roads, there will be fewer pollutants entering the atmosphere. Another benefit of the new cement is a reduction in accidents, injuries and deaths that result from potholes. Thousands of motorists and pedestrians worldwide are killed because drivers swerve to avoid holes in roads. There is also good news for local governments. In Britain alone, at least 40,000 drivers a year claim compensation for damages to their car caused by potholes. The concrete could be put to use in the next 20 years.

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Level 4  or  Level 5

Sources
  • http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/road-and-rail-transport/11268310/The-end-of-potholes-UK-scientists-invent-self-healing-concrete.html
  • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2858316/Potholes-fix-Engineers-say-self-healing-concrete-use-bacteria-stop-cracks-gaps-getting-bigger-used-future.html#ixzz3Kula2kCB
  • http://eandt.theiet.org/news/2014/dec/future-highways-arup.cfm


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



The 40 Lesson Activities on the PDF Handout

WARM-UPS

1. ROADS: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about roads. Change partners often and share your findings.

2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?

 

drivers / respite / innovative / solution / bacteria / serious damage / lifespan / repairs / concrete / CO2 / emissions / pollutants / pedestrians / governments / compensation

Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.

3. HIGHWAYS: How can we make them better? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

Problems now

Solutions

Safety

 

 

Signs

 

 

Internet

 

 

Rest stops

 

 

Pedestrians

 

 

Road works

 

 

4. PATHS: Students A strongly believe there should be more footpaths and cycle paths and fewer roads; Students B strongly believe the opposite.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.

MY e-BOOK
See a sample

5. ROAD DANGERS: Rank these with your partner. Put the biggest dangers at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • holes

  • pedestrians

  • speeding

  • cyclists

  • poor signs

  • speed limits

  • animals

  • trucks

6. SOLUTION: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "solution". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.





BEFORE READING / LISTENING

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if  a-h  below are true (T) or false (F).

a.

Only drivers in British university cities will get the new roads.

T / F

b.

Scientists have developed a bacteria that is sprayed on top of roads.

T / F

c.

The bacteria open to release gap-plugging limestone.

T / F

d.

Scientists estimate the new concrete will reduce repair costs by 20%.

T / F

e.

Seven per cent of CO2 emissions is from the production of concrete.

T / F

f.

The new concrete could lead to a reduction in levels of pollution.

T / F

g.

Around 40,000 motorists in the UK die each year because of potholes.

T / F

h.

The new concrete could be in use in the next two decades.

T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

1.

drivers

a.

leaks

2.

respite

b.

change direction

3.

novel

c.

reduce

4.

seeps

d.

original

5.

lower

e.

guess

6.

estimate

f.

not less than

7.

benefit

g.

motorists

8.

swerve

h.

ask for

9.

at least

i.

advantage

10.

claim

j.

relief

3. PHRASE MATCH:  (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

1.

a novel and innovative

a.

entering the atmosphere

2.

when water seeps

b.

to 50 per cent

3.

repairing it to avert

c.

pedestrians

4.

considerably increase the lifespan

d.

news

5.

lower roadwork costs by up

e.

more serious damage

6.

The new concrete could be good

f.

solution

7.

CO2

g.

put to use

8.

there will be fewer pollutants

h.

of roads

9.

motorists and

i.

into a crack

10.

The concrete could be

j.

emissions



 

GAP FILL

Drivers the world over may soon have (1) ____________ from potholes and cracks in the road. Scientists from the universities of Bath, Cambridge and Cardiff have come up with a (2) ____________ and innovative solution to plugging (3) ____________ and holes in roads and highways. They have created a bacteria-filled concrete to (4) ____________ cracks in a road from becoming larger. The concrete is full of bacteria that open when water (5) ____________ into a crack. The bacteria burst open and (6) ____________ limestone into the crack, thus filling and repairing it to avert more (7) ____________ damage. The scientists believe their discovery could considerably increase the (8) ____________ of roads, reduce repairs, and lower roadwork costs by up to 50 per cent.

 

 

inject
lifespan
novel
prevent
respite
serious
gaps
seeps

The new concrete could be good (9) ____________ for the environment. Scientists estimate that over seven per cent of the world's CO2 (10) ____________ come from the production of cement. If less cement is needed to repair roads, there will be fewer (11) ____________ entering the atmosphere. Another benefit of the new cement is a reduction in accidents, injuries and deaths that (12) ____________ from potholes. Thousands of motorists and pedestrians worldwide are killed because drivers (13) ____________ to avoid holes in roads. There is also good news for local governments. In Britain (14) ____________, at least 40,000 drivers a year (15) ____________ compensation for damages to their car caused by potholes. The concrete could be put to (16) ____________ in the next 20 years.

 

swerve
claim
emissions
result
news
use
pollutants
alone

 





LISTENING - Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)

Drivers the world over may soon ______ potholes

 

a.  have rest from
b.  have despite from
c.  have respite from
d.  have rest spite from

2)

come up with a novel and innovative solution to plugging ______

 

a.  gapes and holes
b.  gaps and holes
c.  caps and holes
d.  capes and holes

3)

The concrete is full of bacteria that open when ______ a crack

 

a.  water seeps into
b.  water sweeps into
c.  water sleeps into
d.  water steeps into

4)

The scientists believe their discovery could considerably increase ______

 

a.  the lifespan for roads
b.  the lifespan from roads
c.  the lifespan of roads
d.  the lifespan if roads

5)

reduce repairs and lower roadwork costs ______ 50 per cent

 

a.  buy up to
b.  by upper to
c.  by up too
d.  by up to

6)

over seven per cent of the world's ______

 

a.  CO2 emissions
b.  see O2 emissions
c.  CO two emissions
d.  see oh too emissions

7)

Another benefit of the new cement is a reduction ______

 

a.  in accidents
b.  on accidents
c.  an accidents
d.  of accidents

8)

There is also good news for ______

 

a.  locals governments
b.  local governments
c.  locally governments
d.  locale governments

9)

claim compensation for damages to their car ______

 

a.  cause by potholes
b.  causal by potholes
c.  causes by potholes
d.  caused by potholes

10)

The concrete could be put to use in ______

 

a.  the next 20 years
b.  a next 20 years
c.  from next 20 years
d.  this next 20 years

LISTENING – Listen and fill in the gaps

Drivers the world over may (1) ___________________ from potholes and cracks in the road. Scientists from the universities of Bath, Cambridge and Cardiff (2) ___________________ a novel and innovative solution to plugging gaps and holes in roads and highways. They have created a bacteria-filled concrete (3) ___________________ in a road from becoming larger. The concrete is full of bacteria that open when water seeps into a crack. The bacteria (4) ___________________ inject limestone into the crack, thus filling and repairing (5) ___________________ more serious damage. The scientists believe their discovery could considerably (6) ___________________ of roads, reduce repairs, and lower roadwork costs by up to 50 per cent.

The new concrete could be (7) ___________________ the environment. Scientists estimate that over seven per cent of the world's CO2 emissions come from the production of cement. If less (8) ___________________ to repair roads, there will be (9) ___________________ entering the atmosphere. Another benefit of the new cement is a reduction in accidents, injuries and deaths (10) ___________________ potholes. Thousands of motorists and pedestrians worldwide are killed because drivers swerve to avoid holes in roads. There is (11) ___________________ for local governments. In Britain alone, at least 40,000 drivers a year claim compensation for damages to their car caused by potholes. The concrete could (12) ___________________ the next 20 years.





COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

1.

Where are the drivers from who will have respite from cracks in roads?

2.

What two adjectives described the solution to plugging gaps?

3.

What seeks into a crack that activates the bursting of bacteria?

4.

What gets injected by the bacteria into the cracks?

5.

What could get reduced by up to 50 per cent?

6.

What could the new concrete be good news for?

7.

How much of the world's CO2 emissions come from cement production?

8.

What will there be less of in the air if the new cement is used?

9.

What do many drivers do to avoid holes in roads?

10.

How many UK drivers claim compensation each year?

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ

1.

Where are the drivers from who will have respite from cracks in roads?

6.

What could the new concrete be good news for?

 

a) China
b) the world over
c) three British universities
d) the USA

 

a) the environment
b) cyclists
c) city planners
d) tar companies

2.

What two adjectives described the solution to plugging gaps?

7.

How much of the world's CO2 emissions come from cement production?

 

a) hard and soft
b) ready and available
c) bookish and cutting-edge
d) novel and innovative

 

a) 5%
b) 6%
c) 7%
d) 8%

3.

What seeks into a crack that activates the bursting of bacteria?

8.

What will there be less of in the air if the new cement is used?

 

a) water
b) CO2
c) tar
d) dirt

 

a) pollutants
b) light
c) dust
d) bees

4.

What gets injected by the bacteria into the cracks?

9.

What do many drivers do to avoid holes in roads?

 

a) plastic
b) tar
c) limestone
d) CO2

 

a) swerve
b) stop
c) speed up
d) reverse

5.

What could get reduced by up to 50 per cent?

10.

How many UK drivers claim compensation each year?

 

a) the number of cars
b) roadwork repairs
c) traffic jams
d) C02 emissions

 

a) just under 40,000
b) between 14,000 and 40,000
c) around 14,000
d) over 40,000

ROLE PLAY

Role  A – Roads

You think the government needs to spend more money on roads. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things aren't so good. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): trains, airports or cycle paths.

Role  B – Trains

You think the government needs to spend more money on trains. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things aren't so good. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): roads, airports or cycle paths.

Role  C – Airports

You think the government needs to spend more money on airports. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things aren't so good. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): trains, roads or cycle paths.

Role  D – Cycle paths

You think the government needs to spend more money on cycle paths. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things aren't so good. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why):  trains, airports or roads.





AFTER READING / LISTENING

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words 'crack' and 'hole'.

crack

 

hole

 

 

  • Share your findings with your partners.
  • Make questions using the words you found.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

  • Share your questions with other classmates / groups.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

  • soon
  • novel
  • larger
  • full
  • serious
  • costs
  • news
  • less
  • benefit
  • because
  • least
  • 20

ROADS SURVEY

Write five GOOD questions about roads in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper.

When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

 

STUDENT 1

_____________

STUDENT 2

_____________

STUDENT 3

_____________

Q.1.

 

 

 

 

Q.2.

 

 

 

 

Q.3.

 

 

 

 

Q.4.

 

 

 

 

Q.5.

 

 

 

 

  • Now return to your original partner and share and talk about what you found out. Change partners often.
  • Make mini-presentations to other groups on your findings.

ROADS DISCUSSION

STUDENT A's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

11)

Did you like reading this article? Why/not?

12)

What good news have you heard about the environment?

13)

How can we reduce CO2 emissions from roads and cars?

14)

How can we reduce accidents on roads?

15)

Should there be more space for pedestrians and less space for cars?

16)

Do people in your country drive well?

17)

What are the biggest causes of traffic accidents?

18)

Have you ever been in a traffic accident?

19)

How excited are you about this new concrete?

20)

What questions would you like to ask the researchers?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

1)

What did you think when you read the headline?

2)

What springs to mind when you hear the word 'road'?

3)

What is the condition of roads like in your country?

4)

What do you think about what you read?

5)

Should there be more roads or fewer roads?

6)

How can city planners make roads better?

7)

How serious a problem are potholes?

8)

What do you think of the 'self-repairing' concrete?

9)

What problems do potholes cause?

10)

How great is this new innovation?





DISCUSSION (Write your own questions)

STUDENT A's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

LANGUAGE - CLOZE

Drivers the world over may soon have (1) ____ from potholes and cracks in the road. Scientists from the universities of Bath, Cambridge and Cardiff have come   (2) ____ with a novel and innovative solution to (3) ____ gaps and holes in roads and highways. They have created a bacteria-filled concrete to prevent cracks in a road from becoming larger. The concrete is full of bacteria that open when water (4) ____ into a crack. The bacteria burst open and inject limestone into the crack, (5) ____ filling and repairing it to avert more serious damage. The scientists believe their discovery could considerably increase the lifespan of roads, reduce repairs, and lower roadwork (6) ____ by up to 50 per cent.

The new concrete could be good news for the environment. Scientists (7) ____ that over seven per cent of the world's CO2 emissions come from the production of cement. If (8) ____ cement is needed to repair roads, there will be fewer pollutants entering the atmosphere. Another benefit of the new cement is a reduction (9) ____ accidents, injuries and deaths that result from potholes. Thousands of motorists and pedestrians worldwide are killed because drivers swerve (10) ____ avoid holes in roads. There is also good news for local governments. In Britain alone, at least 40,000 drivers a year (11) ____ compensation for damages to their car caused by potholes. The concrete could be put to (12) ____ in the next 20 years.

Put the correct words from the table below in the above article.

1.

(a)

respite

(b)

despite

(c)

spite

(d)

inspire

2.

(a)

down

(b)

through

(c)

up

(d)

in

3.

(a)

smuggling

(b)

struggling

(c)

plugging

(d)

mugging

4.

(a)

weeps

(b)

beeps

(c)

peeps

(d)

seeps

5.

(a)

thus

(b)

such

(c)

for

(d)

to

6.

(a)

costed

(b)

costs

(c)

costing

(d)

accosts

7.

(a)

figuring

(b)

guesses

(c)

calculating

(d)

estimate

8.

(a)

fewer

(b)

less

(c)

smaller

(d)

tinier

9.

(a)

to

(b)

on

(c)

in

(d)

for

10.

(a)

go

(b)

do

(c)

so

(d)

to

11.

(a)

clan

(b)

clam

(c)

calm

(d)

claim

12.

(a)

road

(b)

use

(c)

hole

(d)

crack

SPELLING

Paragraph 1

1.

have espeitr from potholes

2.

a novel and ntaoivivne solution

3.

vrtepen cracks in a road

4.

njitec limestone into the crack

5.

rtvae more serious damage

6.

ryanslbcideo increase the lifespan of roads

Paragraph 2

7.

good news for the tmvnenroine

8.

CO2 siossneim

9.

fewer tostalunpl entering the atmosphere

10.

motorists and dsitaenrpse

11.

drivers esewvr to avoid holes

12.

claim esaoopcinnmt for damages

PUT THE TEXT BACK TOGETHER

Number these lines in the correct order.

(    )

of the world's CO2 emissions come from the production of cement. If less cement is needed to repair

(    )

from the universities of Bath, Cambridge and Cardiff have come up with a novel and innovative

(    )

news for local governments. In Britain alone, at least 40,000 drivers a year claim compensation for

1  )

Drivers the world over may soon have respite from potholes and cracks in the road. Scientists

(    )

pedestrians worldwide are killed because drivers swerve to avoid holes in roads. There is also good

(    )

is a reduction in accidents, injuries and deaths that result from potholes. Thousands of motorists and

(    )

to prevent cracks in a road from becoming larger. The concrete is full of bacteria that open when water seeps

(    )

into a crack. The bacteria burst open and inject limestone into the crack, thus filling and repairing it to avert more

(    )

The new concrete could be good news for the environment. Scientists estimate that over seven per cent

(    )

serious damage. The scientists believe their discovery could considerably increase

(    )

solution to plugging gaps and holes in roads and highways. They have created a bacteria-filled concrete

(    )

damages to their car caused by potholes. The concrete could be put to use in the next 20 years.

(    )

the lifespan of roads, reduce repairs, and lower roadwork costs by up to 50 per cent.

(    )

roads, there will be fewer pollutants entering the atmosphere. Another benefit of the new cement

PUT THE WORDS IN THE RIGHT ORDER

1.

world   over   may  soon   have  respite  from  potholes  Drivers   the  .

2.

becoming    in    larger    a    road    Prevent    from    cracks    .   

3.

to    it    Repairing    damage    serious    more    avert    .   

4.

of    roads    Increase    and    the    reduce    lifespan    repairs    .   

5.

costs    to    cent    roadwork    up    per    Lower    by    50    .   

6.

be   good   news   for   the  environment  The   new  concrete   could   .

7.

pollutants    There    entering    will    the   be    atmosphere    fewer   .

8.

drivers    avoid    roads    because    to    in   Killed    swerve   holes    .

9.

least    40,000    drivers    a    year    claim    compensation    At    .   

10.

years   the   to   could   next   use   be    The   20   in   put   concrete  .

CIRCLE THE CORRECT WORD (20 PAIRS)

Drivers the world over may soon have despite / respite from potholes and cracks in the road. Scientists from the universities of Bath, Cambridge and Cardiff have come down / up with a novel and innovative / innovation solution to plugging / plugged gaps and holes in roads and highways. They have created a bacteria-filled concrete for / to prevent cracks in a road from becoming larger. The concrete is full of bacteria that open which / when water seeps into a crack. The bacteria burst open and injection / inject limestone into the crack, thus / these filling and repairing it to avert more serious / seriously damage. The scientists believe their discovery could considerably increase the lifespan of roads, reduce / reduction repairs, and lower roadwork costs by up to 50 per cent.

The new concrete could be well / good news for the environment. Scientists estimate that over seven per cent for / of the world's CO2 emissions come from the production of / by cement. If less cement is needed to repair roads, there will be fewer / less pollutants entering the atmosphere. Another benefit of the new cement is a reduction in / on accidents, injuries and deaths that result / results from potholes. Thousands of motorists and pedestrians worldwide are killed / died because drivers swerve to avoid holes in roads. There is also good news for locally / local governments. In Britain alone, at least 40,000 drivers a year claim / clam compensation for damages to their car caused by potholes. The concrete could be put to useful / use in the next 20 years.

Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.





INSERT THE VOWELS (a, e, i, o, u)

Dr_v_rs th_ w_rld _v_r m_y s__n h_v_ r_sp_t_ fr_m p_th_l_s _nd cr_cks _n th_ r__d. Sc__nt_sts fr_m th_ _n_v_rs_t__s _f B_th, C_mbr_dg_ _nd C_rd_ff h_v_ c_m_ _p w_th _ n_v_l _nd _nn_v_t_v_ s_l_t__n t_ pl_gg_ng g_ps _nd h_l_s _n r__ds _nd h_ghw_ys. Th_y h_v_ cr__t_d _ b_ct_r__-f_ll_d c_ncr_t_ t_ pr_v_nt cr_cks _n _ r__d fr_m b_c_m_ng l_rg_r. Th_ c_ncr_t_ _s f_ll _f b_ct_r__ th_t _p_n wh_n w_t_r s__ps _nt_ _ cr_ck. Th_ b_ct_r__ b_rst _p_n _nd _nj_ct l_m_st_n_ _nt_ th_ cr_ck, th_s f_ll_ng _nd r_p__r_ng _t t_ _v_rt m_r_ s_r___s d_m_g_. Th_ sc__nt_sts b_l__v_ th__r d_sc_v_ry c__ld c_ns_d_r_bly _ncr__s_ th_ l_f_sp_n _f r__ds, r_d_c_ r_p__rs, _nd l_w_r r__dw_rk c_sts by _p t_ 50 p_r c_nt.

Th_ n_w c_ncr_t_ c__ld b_ g__d n_ws f_r th_ _nv_r_nm_nt. Sc__nt_sts _st_m_t_ th_t _v_r s_v_n p_r c_nt _f th_ w_rld's C_2 _m_ss__ns c_m_ fr_m th_ pr_d_ct__n _f c_m_nt. _f l_ss c_m_nt _s n__d_d t_ r_p__r r__ds, th_r_ w_ll b_ f_w_r p_ll_t_nts _nt_r_ng th_ _tm_sph_r_. _n_th_r b_n_f_t _f th_ n_w c_m_nt _s _ r_d_ct__n _n _cc_d_nts, _nj_r__s _nd d__ths th_t r_s_lt fr_m p_th_l_s. Th__s_nds _f m_t_r_sts _nd p_d_str__ns w_rldw_d_ _r_ k_ll_d b_c__s_ dr_v_rs sw_rv_ t_ _v__d h_l_s _n r__ds. Th_r_ _s _ls_ g__d n_ws f_r l_c_l g_v_rnm_nts. _n Br_t__n _l_n_, _t l__st 40,000 dr_v_rs _ y__r cl__m c_mp_ns_t__n f_r d_m_g_s t_ th__r c_r c__s_d by p_th_l_s. Th_ c_ncr_t_ c__ld b_ p_t t_ _s_ _n th_ n_xt 20 y__rs.

PUNCTUATE THE TEXT AND ADD CAPITALS

drivers the world over may soon have respite from potholes and cracks in the road scientists from the universities of bath cambridge and cardiff have come up with a novel and innovative solution to plugging gaps and holes in roads and highways they have created a bacteria-filled concrete to prevent cracks in a road from becoming larger the concrete is full of bacteria that open when water seeps into a crack the bacteria burst open and inject limestone into the crack thus filling and repairing it to avert more serious damage the scientists believe their discovery could considerably increase the lifespan of roads reduce repairs and lower roadwork costs by up to 50 per cent

the new concrete could be good news for the environment scientists estimate that over seven per cent of the world's co2 emissions come from the production of cement if less cement is needed to repair roads there will be fewer pollutants entering the atmosphere another benefit of the new cement is a reduction in accidents injuries and deaths that result from potholes thousands of motorists and pedestrians worldwide are killed because drivers swerve to avoid holes in roads there is also good news for local governments in britain alone at least 40000 drivers a year claim compensation for damages to their car caused by potholes the concrete could be put to use in the next 20 years





PUT A SLASH ( / ) WHERE THE SPACES ARE

Driverstheworldovermaysoonhaverespitefrompotholesandcracksin
theroad.ScientistsfromtheuniversitiesofBath,CambridgeandCardiff
havecomeupwithanovelandinnovativesolutiontoplugginggapsandh
olesinroadsandhighways.Theyhavecreatedabacteria-filledconcr
etetopreventcracksinaroadfrombecominglarger.Theconcreteisfullof
bacteriathatopenwhenwaterseepsintoacrack.Thebacteriaburstopen
andinjectlimestoneintothecrack,thusfillingandrepairingittoavertmo
reseriousdamage.Thescientistsbelievetheirdiscoverycouldconsider
ablyincreasethelifespanofroads,reducerepairs,andlowerroadworkc
ostsbyupto50percent.Thenewconcretecouldbegoodnewsfortheenvi
ronment.Scientistsestimatethatoversevenpercentoftheworld'sCO2
emissionscomefromtheproductionofcement.Iflesscementisneededt
orepairroads,therewillbefewerpollutantsenteringtheatmosphere.An
otherbenefitofthenewcementisareductioninaccidents,injuriesandde
athsthatresultfrompotholes.Thousandsofmotoristsandpedestrians
worldwidearekilledbecausedriversswervetoavoidholesinroads.Ther
eisalsogoodnewsforlocalgovernments.InBritainalone,atleast40,000
driversayearclaimcompensationfordamagestotheircarcausedbypot
holes.Theconcretecouldbeputtouseinthenext20years.

FREE WRITING

Write about roads for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner's paper.

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ACADEMIC WRITING

There should be fewer roads and more cycle paths. Discuss.

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HOMEWORK

1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.

2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about roads. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.

3. ROADS: Make a poster about roads. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?

4. CONCRETE: Write a magazine article about the new self-repairing concrete. Include imaginary interviews with motorists and the researchers.

Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).

5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.

6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on roads. Ask him/her three questions about them. Give him/her three ideas on how to improve them. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

ANSWERS

TRUE / FALSE (p.4)

a

F

b

F

c

T

d

F

e

T

f

T

g

F

h

T

SYNONYM MATCH (p.4)

1.

drivers

a.

motorists

2.

respite

b.

relief

3.

novel

c.

original

4.

seeps

d.

leaks

5.

lower

e.

reduce

6.

estimate

f.

guess

7.

benefit

g.

advantage

8.

swerve

h.

change direction

9.

at least

i.

not less than

10.

claim

j.

ask for

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS (p.8)

1.

The world over

2.

Novel and innovative

3.

Water

4.

Limestone

5.

Roadwork costs

6.

The environment

7.

Seven per cent

8.

Pollutants

9.

Swerve

10.

At least 40,000

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ (p.9)

1.

b

2.

d

3.

a

4.

c

5.

b

6.

a

7.

c

8.

a

9.

a

10.

d

ALL OTHER EXERCISES

Please check for yourself by looking at the Article on page 2.
(It's good for your English ;-)

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