The Reading / Listening - Level 6

New research suggests that climate change helped dogs develop from creatures resembling cats to the way they are today. Researchers from Brown University in the USA believe that 40 million years ago, dogs were smaller and hunted like cats. They hid, stalked and ambushed their prey. As climate change transformed Earth's landscape, the physique and food-gathering habits of dogs changed. Thick forests that once covered the North American continent started to become less dense as the planet became cooler. The emergence of grassland meant dogs had fewer places to hide to ambush their victims. To adapt, they evolved their hunting styles and slowly grew longer legs.



The scientists analysed how dogs have evolved by looking at the elbows and teeth of 32 different species that lived between two million to 40 million years ago. The researchers said that the dogs' elbows, in particular, were good indicators of evolutionary change. Dogs from 40 million years ago had elbows that were more similar to those of cats. Their function was to allow the front paws to swivel do they could grab and hold on to prey. Those elbows changed in dogs to allow them to become endurance runners and thus be able to pursue their prey over long distances. Teeth in dogs also altered to be more efficient. They became more hard-wearing to be able to hold on to prey.

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Level 4  or  Level 5

Sources
  • http://www.irishexaminer.com/examviral/science-world/so-it-turns-out-dogs-used-to-be-quite-similar-to-cats-348926.html
  • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3202370/How-climate-change-shaped-DOGS-Man-s-best-friend-cat-like-North-America-hotter-covered-forests.html
  • http://www.pressexaminer.com/new-discovery-shows-that-dogs-used-to-look-more-like-cats/42298


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



The 40 Lesson Activities on the PDF Handout

WARM-UPS

1. DOGS: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about dogs. Change partners often and share your findings.

2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?

 

research / develop / million / prey / landscape / habits / continent / planet / cooler / analysed / elbows / species / evolutionary / change / function / long distances / teeth

Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.

3. CLIMATE CHANGE: How is it changing things on Earth? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

Changes

How to cope with this

Weather

 

 

Animals

 

 

Disasters

 

 

Lifestyles

 

 

Water

 

 

Population

 

 

4. CATS AND DOGS: Students A strongly believe dogs are better than cats; Students B strongly believe the opposite.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.

MY e-BOOK
See a sample

5. ANIMALS: Rank these with your partner. Put the best ones at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • dog

  • elephant

  • bear

  • snake

  • cat

  • koala

  • mouse

  • cow

6. DOG: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "dog". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.





BEFORE READING / LISTENING

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if  a-h  below are true (T) or false (F).

a.

Research says climate change affected the development of dogs.

T / F

b.

Forty million years ago dogs were more like cats.

T / F

c.

Dogs changed because more forests developed on Earth.

T / F

d.

Dogs grew longer legs so they could hunt.

T / F

e.

Scientists looked at the teeth of 32 million dogs.

T / F

f.

Dogs from the past had elbows similar to cats' elbows.

T / F

g.

The changes in dogs' legs meant they could not run as far.

T / F

h.

Dogs' teeth became softer.

T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

1.

suggests

a.

lay in wait for

2.

develop

b.

especially

3.

ambushed

c.

rotate

4.

dense

d.

evolve

5.

emergence

e.

examined

6.

analysed

f.

purpose

7.

in particular

g.

indicates

8.

function

h.

changed

9.

swivel

i.

arrival

10.

altered

j.

thick

3. PHRASE MATCH:  (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

1.

climate change helped dogs

a.

ambush their victims

2.

creatures resembling

b.

paws

3.

dogs were smaller and

c.

dogs have evolved

4.

the planet became

d.

develop

5.

dogs had fewer places to hide to

e.

species

6.

The scientists analysed how

f.

cooler

7.

32 different

g.

change

8.

indicators of evolutionary

h.

cats

9.

front

i.

wearing

10.

They became more hard-

j.

hunted like cats





GAP FILL

New research suggests that climate change helped dogs (1) ____________ from creatures (2) ____________ cats to the way they are today. Researchers from Brown University in the USA believe that 40 million years ago, dogs were smaller and (3) ____________ like cats. They hid, stalked and (4) ____________ their prey. As climate change transformed Earth's landscape, the (5) ____________ and food-gathering habits of dogs changed. Thick forests that once covered the North American continent started to become less (6) ____________ as the planet became cooler. The (7) ____________ of grassland meant dogs had fewer places to hide to ambush their victims. To (8) ____________, they evolved their hunting styles and slowly grew longer legs.

 

 

physique
develop
resembling
emergence
ambushed
adapt
hunted
dense

The (9) ____________ analysed how dogs have evolved by looking at the elbows and teeth of 32 different (10) ____________ that lived between two million to 40 million years ago. The researchers said that the dogs' elbows, in (11) ____________, were good indicators of evolutionary change. Dogs from 40 million years ago had elbows that were more (12) ____________ to those of cats. Their function was to allow the front paws to (13) ____________ so they could grab and hold on to prey. Those elbows changed in dogs to allow them to become (14) ____________ runners and thus be able to pursue their prey over long distances. Teeth in dogs also altered to be more (15) ____________. They became more (16) ____________ -wearing to be able to hold on to prey.

 

similar
scientists
endurance
particular
hard
species
efficient
swivel

 





LISTENING - Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)

climate change helped dogs develop from creatures resembling cats to ______ today

 

a.  the way they were
b.  the way they have
c.  the way they are
d.  the way there are

2)

As climate change transformed Earth's landscape, the physique and food-______ dogs changed

 

a.  gathering habits of
b.  gathering habits off
c.  gathering habit of
d.  gathering habit off

3)

Thick forests that once covered the North American continent started to ______

 

a.  become less tense
b.  become less dense
c.  become less dents
d.  become less dance

4)

The emergence of grassland meant dogs had fewer places to hide to ______

 

a.  arm bush their victims
b.  and bush their victims
c.  and brush their victims
d.  ambush their victims

5)

To adapt, they evolved their hunting styles and ______ legs

 

a.  slowly grow longer
b.  slowly grew longer
c.  slowly grown longer
d.  slowly grows longer

6)

The scientists analysed how dogs have evolved by ______

 

a.  looking at the elbows
b.  looking at the elbow
c.  looking in two elbows
d.  looking in two elbows

7)

the dogs' elbows, in particular, were good indicators of ______

 

a.  evolutionary changes
b.  evolutionary changed
c.  evolutionary change
d.  evolutionary charge

8)

Those elbows changed in dogs to allow them to become ______

 

a.  endurance runners
b.  enduring runners
c.  insurance runners
d.  entrance runners

9)

Teeth in dogs also altered to ______

 

a.  be more efficiently
b.  be more efficiency
c.  be more efficient
d.  be more coefficient

10)

They became more hard-wearing to be able to ______

 

a.  hold on to pray
b.  hold on too pray
c.  holding on to prey
d.  hold on to prey

LISTENING – Listen and fill in the gaps

New research suggests (1) ___________________ helped dogs develop from creatures resembling cats to the way they are today. Researchers from Brown University in the USA believe that (2) ___________________, dogs were smaller and hunted like cats. They hid, stalked and ambushed their prey. As climate change transformed (3) ___________________, the physique and food-gathering habits of dogs changed. Thick forests that once covered the North American (4) ___________________ become less dense as the planet became cooler. The emergence of grassland meant dogs had fewer places (5) ___________________ their victims. To adapt, they evolved their hunting (6) ___________________  grew longer legs.

The scientists analysed how dogs have (7) ___________________ the elbows and teeth of 32 (8) ___________________ that lived between two million to 40 million years ago. The researchers said that the dogs' elbows, in particular, were good indicators of (9) ___________________. Dogs from 40 million years ago had elbows that were more similar to those of cats. Their function was to allow (10) ___________________ swivel so they could grab and hold on to prey. Those elbows changed in dogs to allow them to become endurance runners and (11) ___________________ pursue their prey over long distances. Teeth in dogs also altered to be more efficient. They became more hard-wearing to be able (12) ___________________.





COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

1.

What does research say caused the development in dogs?

2.

How long ago did dogs resemble cats?

3.

What habits of dogs changed?

4.

What became less dense in North America?

5.

What did dogs grow to be able to hunt better?

6.

How many different species of dog did scientists look at?

7.

What did the scientists say dogs were good indicators of?

8.

What do the elbows in cats allow them to do?

9.

What could dogs do for a longer time after their elbows changed?

10.

What part of a dog became harder wearing?

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ

1.

What does research say caused the development in dogs?

6.

How many different species of dog did scientists look at?

 

a) dogs becoming pets
b) climate change
c) better dog food
d) cats

 

a) 32
b) 38
c) 33
d) 34

2.

How long ago did dogs resemble cats?

7.

What did the scientists say dogs were good indicators of?

 

a) 14 million years ago
b) 400,000,000 years ago
c) 40 million years ago
d) 140,000,000 years ago

 

a) revolutionary charge
b) pets
c) dogs
d) evolutionary change

3.

What habits of dogs changed?

8.

What do the elbows in cats allow them to do?

 

a) nocturnal habits
b) bad habits
c) sleeping habits
d) food-gathering habits

 

a) swipe
b) swirl
c) swivel
d) swift

4.

What became less dense in North America?

9.

What could dogs do for a longer time after their elbows changed?

 

a) brains
b) forests
c) fog
d) smoke

 

a) bark
b) eat
c) sleep
d) run

5.

What did dogs grow to be able to hunt better?

10.

What part of a dog became harder wearing?

 

a) longer legs
b) sharper teeth
c) silkier hair
d) wider paws

 

a) fur
b) teeth
c) paws
d) collars

ROLE PLAY

Role  A – Dogs

You think dogs are the most interesting animals. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their animals aren't so interesting. Also, tell the others which is the most boring of these (and why): elephants, mice or snakes.

Role  B – Elephants

You think elephants are the most interesting animals. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their animals aren't so interesting. Also, tell the others which is the most boring of these (and why): dogs, mice or snakes.

Role  C – Mice

You think mice are the most interesting animals. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their animals aren't so interesting. Also, tell the others which is the most boring of these (and why): elephants, dogs or snakes.

Role  D – Snakes

You think snakes are the most interesting animals. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their animals aren't so interesting. Also, tell the others which is the most boring of these (and why):  elephants, mice or dogs.





AFTER READING / LISTENING

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words 'dogs' and 'cats'.

dogs

 

cats

 

 

  • Share your findings with your partners.
  • Make questions using the words you found.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

  • Share your questions with other classmates / groups.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

  • new
  • believe
  • hid
  • habits
  • meant
  • longer
  • 32
  • particular
  • front
  • runners
  • efficient
  • hard

DOGS SURVEY

Write five GOOD questions about dogs in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper.

When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

 

STUDENT 1

_____________

STUDENT 2

_____________

STUDENT 3

_____________

Q.1.

 

 

 

 

Q.2.

 

 

 

 

Q.3.

 

 

 

 

Q.4.

 

 

 

 

Q.5.

 

 

 

 

  • Now return to your original partner and share and talk about what you found out. Change partners often.
  • Make mini-presentations to other groups on your findings.

DOGS DISCUSSION

STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

1)

What did you think when you read the headline?

2)

What springs to mind when you hear the word 'dog'?

3)

Which are better- dogs or cats? Why?

4)

How useful are dogs?

5)

What do you think about what you read?

6)

How has climate change transformed other animals?

7)

What effect has climate change had on humans?

8)

How do you think humans will be different in a million years from now?

9)

What is the best kind of dog?

10)

How do dogs hunt?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

11)

Did you like reading this article? Why/not?

12)

What do you think of dogs?

13)

Why do many people keep dogs as pets?

14)

What are the bad things about dogs?

15)

What does the phrase, 'It's a dog's life' mean? Is it true?

16)

How did humans use to hunt?

17)

Will keeping dogs as pets change their physique?

18)

People say dogs are a man's best friend. Why?

19)

How will global warming change other species from now?

20)

What questions would you like to ask the researchers?





DISCUSSION (Write your own questions)

STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

LANGUAGE - CLOZE

New research suggests that climate change helped dogs develop from (1) ____ resembling cats to the way they are today. Researchers from Brown University in the USA (2) ____ that 40 million years ago, dogs were smaller and hunted like cats. They hid, stalked and ambushed their prey. As climate change (3) ____ Earth's landscape, the physique and food-gathering habits of dogs changed. Thick forests that once covered the North American continent started to become less (4) ____ as the planet became cooler. The (5) ____ of grassland meant dogs had fewer places to hide to ambush their victims. To adapt, they (6) ____ their hunting styles and slowly grew longer legs.

The scientists analysed how dogs have evolved by looking at the elbows and teeth of 32 different (7) ____ that lived between two million to 40 million years ago. The researchers said that the dogs' elbows, in (8) ____, were good indicators of evolutionary change. Dogs from 40 million years ago had elbows that were more similar to (9) ____ of cats. Their function was to allow the front paws to swivel so they could grab and hold (10) ____ to prey. Those elbows changed in dogs to allow them to become endurance runners and thus be able to (11) ____ their prey over long distances. Teeth in dogs also (12) ____ to be more efficient. They became more hard-wearing to be able to hold on to prey.

Put the correct words from the table below in the above article.

1.

(a)

craters

(b)

creatures

(c)

creatives

(d)

encroaches

2.

(a)

belief

(b)

believe

(c)

believing

(d)

beliefs

3.

(a)

transported

(b)

transfused

(c)

transferred

(d)

transformed

4.

(a)

tense

(b)

dense

(c)

immense

(d)

tents

5.

(a)

emergency

(b)

emergence

(c)

immersion

(d)

unnerving

6.

(a)

evaded

(b)

involved

(c)

evolved

(d)

revolved

7.

(a)

specials

(b)

specifics

(c)

species

(d)

spaces

8.

(a)

peculiar

(b)

practicality

(c)

particular

(d)

particles

9.

(a)

their

(b)

they

(c)

them

(d)

those

10.

(a)

on

(b)

off

(c)

up

(d)

of

11.

(a)

pursue

(b)

peruse

(c)

persuade

(d)

passage

12.

(a)

alter

(b)

altering

(c)

altered

(d)

alteration

SPELLING

Paragraph 1

1.

asceuerrt resembling cats

2.

They hid, kldetsa and ambushed their prey

3.

the huqpeiys and food-gathering habits

4.

the North American tnntiocen

5.

The reenmgeec of grassland

6.

they veelvod their hunting styles

Paragraph 2

7.

32 different pesisce

8.

good indicators of nrotyluaovie change

9.

allow the front paws to iselwv

10.

become aeercudnn runners

11.

uesrpu their prey over long distances

12.

altered to be more ficieetfn

PUT THE TEXT BACK TOGETHER

Number these lines in the correct order.

(    )

dense as the planet became cooler. The emergence of grassland meant dogs had fewer places to hide to ambush their

(    )

cats to the way they are today. Researchers from Brown University in the USA believe that 40

(    )

altered to be more efficient. They became more hard-wearing to be able to hold on to prey.

(    )

particular, were good indicators of evolutionary change. Dogs from 40 million years ago had elbows that were

(    )

million years ago, dogs were smaller and hunted like cats. They hid, stalked and

(    )

habits of dogs changed. Thick forests that once covered the North American continent started to become less

1  )

New research suggests that climate change helped dogs develop from creatures resembling

(    )

ambushed their prey. As climate change transformed Earth's landscape, the physique and food-gathering

(    )

The scientists analysed how dogs have evolved by looking at the elbows and teeth of 32 different

(    )

more similar to those of cats. Their function was to allow the front paws to swivel

(    )

species that lived between two million to 40 million years ago. The researchers said that the dogs' elbows, in

(    )

runners and thus be able to pursue their prey over long distances. Teeth in dogs also

(    )

victims. To adapt, they evolved their hunting styles and slowly grew longer legs.

(    )

so they could grab and hold on to prey. Those elbows changed in dogs to allow them to become endurance

PUT THE WORDS IN THE RIGHT ORDER

1.

cats   resembling   creatures   from   develop   dogs   Helped   .  

2.

hunted  were  ago  40  like   smaller ,  million  cats   and  dogs  years  .

3.

less   became   dense   cooler   as   the   Become   planet   .  

4.

hide   to   ambush   their   victims   Dogs   had   fewer   places   to   .  

5.

and   slowly   Their   grew   hunting   longer   styles   legs   .  

6.

analysed   scientists   The   evolved   have   dogs   how   .  

7.

different   at   and   32   Looking   elbows   of   species   the   teeth   .  

8.

that   those   similar   were   of   to   Elbows   cats   more   .  

9.

prey   distances   able   their   long   Be   pursue   over   to   .  

10.

able   wearing   more   to   to   hard  They   hold   be  -  became   on   .   

CIRCLE THE CORRECT WORD (20 PAIRS)

New research suggests that climate changing / change helped dogs develop from creatures resembling / resemblance cats to the way they are today. Researchers from Brown University in the USA belief / believe that 40 million years ago, dogs were smaller and hunted / haunted like cats. They hid, stalked and ambush / ambushed their prey. As climate change transformed Earth's landscape, the physic / physique and food-gathering habits of dogs changed. Thick forests that once covering / covered the North American continent started to become less tense / dense as the planet became cooler. The emergence / emergency of grassland meant dogs had fewer places to hide to ambush their victims. To adapt / adopt, they evolved their hunting styles and slowly grew / grown longer legs.

The scientists analysed how dogs have revolved / evolved by looking at the elbows and tooth / teeth of 32 different species that lived between two million to 40 million years past / ago. The researchers said that the dogs' elbows, in particular / peculiar, were good indicators of evolutionary change / chance. Dogs from 40 million years ago had elbows that were more similarity / similar to those of cats. Their function was to allow the front paws to swivel / snivel so they could grab and hold on to pray / prey. Those elbows changed in dogs to allow them to become endurance / enduring runners and thus be able to pursue their prey over long distances. Teeth in dogs also altered to be more efficiently / efficient. They became more hard-wearing to be able to hold on to prey.

Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.





INSERT THE VOWELS (a, e, i, o, u)

N_w r_s__rch s_gg_sts th_t cl_m_t_ ch_ng_ h_lp_d d_gs d_v_l_p fr_m cr__t_r_s r_s_mbl_ng c_ts t_ th_ w_y th_y _r_ t_d_y. R_s__rch_rs fr_m Br_wn _n_v_rs_ty _n th_ _S_ b_l__v_ th_t 40 m_ll__n y__rs _g_, d_gs w_r_ sm_ll_r _nd h_nt_d l_k_ c_ts. Th_y h_d, st_lk_d _nd _mb_sh_d th__r pr_y. _s cl_m_t_ ch_ng_ tr_nsf_rm_d __rth's l_ndsc_p_, th_ phys_q__ _nd f__d-g_th_r_ng h_b_ts _f d_gs ch_ng_d. Th_ck f_r_sts th_t _nc_ c_v_r_d th_ N_rth _m_r_c_n c_nt_n_nt st_rt_d t_ b_c_m_ l_ss d_ns_ _s th_ pl_n_t b_c_m_ c__l_r. Th_ _m_rg_nc_ _f gr_ssl_nd m__nt d_gs h_d f_w_r pl_c_s t_ h_d_ t_ _mb_sh th__r v_ct_ms. T_ _d_pt, th_y _v_lv_d th__r h_nt_ng styl_s _nd sl_wly gr_w l_ng_r l_gs.

Th_ sc__nt_sts _n_lys_d h_w d_gs h_v_ _v_lv_d by l__k_ng _t th_ _lb_ws _nd t__th _f 32 d_ff_r_nt sp_c__s th_t l_v_d b_tw__n tw_ m_ll__n t_ 40 m_ll__n y__rs _g_. Th_ r_s__rch_rs s__d th_t th_ d_gs' _lb_ws, _n p_rt_c_l_r, w_r_ g__d _nd_c_t_rs _f _v_l_t__n_ry ch_ng_. D_gs fr_m 40 m_ll__n y__rs _g_ h_d _lb_ws th_t w_r_ m_r_ s_m_l_r t_ th_s_ _f c_ts. Th__r f_nct__n w_s t_ _ll_w th_ fr_nt p_ws t_ sw_v_l s_ th_y c__ld gr_b _nd h_ld _n t_ pr_y. Th_s_ _lb_ws ch_ng_d _n d_gs t_ _ll_w th_m t_ b_c_m_ _nd_r_nc_ r_nn_rs _nd th_s b_ _bl_ t_ p_rs__ th__r pr_y _v_r l_ng d_st_nc_s. T__th _n d_gs _ls_ _lt_r_d t_ b_ m_r_ _ff_c__nt. Th_y b_c_m_ m_r_ h_rd-w__r_ng t_ b_ _bl_ t_ h_ld _n t_ pr_y.

PUNCTUATE THE TEXT AND ADD CAPITALS

new research suggests that climate change helped dogs develop from creatures resembling cats to the way they are today researchers from brown university in the usa believe that 40 million years ago dogs were smaller and hunted like cats they hid stalked and ambushed their prey as climate change transformed earth's landscape the physique and food-gathering habits of dogs changed thick forests that once covered the north american continent started to become less dense as the planet became cooler the emergence of grassland meant dogs had fewer places to hide to ambush their victims to adapt they evolved their hunting styles and slowly grew longer legs

the scientists analysed how dogs have evolved by looking at the elbows and teeth of 32 different species that lived between two million to 40 million years ago the researchers said that the dogs' elbows in particular were good indicators of evolutionary change dogs from 40 million years ago had elbows that were more similar to those of cats their function was to allow the front paws to swivel so they could grab and hold on to prey those elbows changed in dogs to allow them to become endurance runners and thus be able to pursue their prey over long distances teeth in dogs also altered to be more efficient they became more hard-wearing to be able to hold on to prey

PUT A SLASH ( / ) WHERE THE SPACES ARE

Newresearchsuggeststhatclimatechangehelpeddogsdevelopfromcr
eaturesresemblingcatstothewaytheyaretoday.ResearchersfromBro
wnUniversityintheUSAbelievethat40millionyearsago,dogsweresmal
lerandhuntedlikecats.Theyhid,stalkedandambushedtheirprey.Ascli
matechangetransformedEarth'slandscape,thephysiqueandfood-
gatheringhabitsofdogschanged.ThickforeststhatoncecoveredtheNo
rthAmericancontinentstartedtobecomelessdenseastheplanetbecam
ecooler.Theemergenceofgrasslandmeantdogshadfewerplacestohid
etoambushtheirvictims.Toadapt,theyevolvedtheirhuntingstylesand
slowlygrewlongerlegs.Thescientistsanalysedhowdogshaveevolvedb
ylookingattheelbowsandteethof32differentspeciesthatlivedbetwee
ntwomillionto40millionyearsago.Theresearcherssaidthatthedogs'el
bows,inparticular,weregoodindicatorsofevolutionarychange.Dogsfr
om40millionyearsagohadelbowsthatweremoresimilartothoseofcats
.Theirfunctionwastoallowthefrontpawstoswivelsotheycouldgraband
holdontoprey.Thoseelbowschangedindogstoallowthemtobecomeen
durancerunnersandthusbeabletopursuetheirpreyoverlongdistances
.Teethindogsalsoalteredtobemoreefficient.Theybecamemorehard-
wearingtobeabletoholdontoprey.

FREE WRITING

Write about dogs for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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ACADEMIC WRITING

Cats are better than dogs. Discuss.

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HOMEWORK

1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google’s search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.

2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about dogs. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.

3. DOGS: Make a poster about dogs. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?

4. CATS AND DOGS: Write a magazine article about dogs. Include imaginary interviews with people who think they are better than cats, and with those who don't.

Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).

5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.

6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on dogs. Ask him/her three questions about dogs. Give him/her three of your opinions on the differences between cats and dogs. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

ANSWERS

TRUE / FALSE (p.4)

a

T

b

T

c

F

d

T

e

F

f

T

g

F

h

F

SYNONYM MATCH (p.4)

1.

suggests

a.

indicates

2

develop

b.

evolve

3.

ambushed

c.

lay in wait for

4.

dense

d.

thick

5.

emergence

e.

arrival

6.

analysed

f.

examined

7.

in particular

g.

especially

8.

function

h.

purpose

9.

swivel

i.

rotate

10.

altered

j.

changed

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS (p.8)

1.

Climate change

2.

40 million years ago

3.

Food-gathering habits

4.

Forests

5.

Longer legs

6.

32

7.

Evolutionary change

8.

Swivel

9.

Run

10.

Their teeth

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ (p.9)

1.

b

2.

c

3.

d

4.

b

5.

a

6.

a

7.

d

8.

c

9.

d

10.

b

ALL OTHER EXERCISES

Please check for yourself by looking at the Article on page 2.
(It's good for your English ;-)

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