The Reading / Listening - Level 6

Scientists in the USA say they are getting closer to developing a vaccine that will provide life-long protection against any type of influenza. This could be welcome news for millions of people around the world who go to the doctor every year to get a flu jab. Two different research teams have been testing new drugs on animals and both have had promising results. Trials will soon begin on humans to determine if the test vaccine has similar successes. Flu expert professor John Oxford told the BBC that: "This is a leap forward compared to anything done recently. They have good animal data, not just in mice but in ferrets and monkeys too." He added that: "It's a very good stepping stone."



The flu virus kills up to half a million people every year. The problem with finding a vaccine is the ever-changing nature of the flu virus. It is in a constant state of mutation. Doctors have to predict which strains of the virus are likely to cause the most infections and then create an updated version of the vaccine accordingly. For this reason, the success rate of most flu vaccines is very low because much of the process involves a lot of guesswork. Scientists say that vaccines in the U.S. reduced the risk of catching flu by just 23 per cent last year. The website Inverse.com said the research could, "point to how we can go about making vaccines for other viruses that mutate rapidly, like HIV or the common cold".

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Level 4  or  Level 5

Sources
  • http://www.bbc.com/news/health-34038808
  • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3209469/Scientists-one-step-closer-creating-universal-flu-vaccine-New-jab-protect-against-strains-virus.html
  • https://www.inverse.com/article/5587-could-we-get-a-universal-flu-vaccine


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



The 40 Lesson Activities on the PDF Handout

WARM-UPS

1. INFLUENZA: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about influenza. Change partners often and share your findings.

2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?

 

scientists / getting closer / developing / vaccine / flu jab / trials / similar / monkeys / virus / nature / constant / mutation / predict / guesswork / research / the common cold

Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.

3. RESEARCH: What do these researchers need to do next? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

What next?

Why?

Computer engineers

 

 

Mathematicians

 

 

Aviation scientists

 

 

Civil engineers

 

 

Robotics engineers

 

 

Biologists

 

 

4. VIRUSES: Students A strongly believe scientists will kill all viruses; Students B strongly believe this will never happen. Change partners again and talk about your conversations.

MY e-BOOK
See a sample

5. SCIENTISTS: Rank these with your partner. Put the things scientists should stop at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • toothache

  • hair loss

  • acne

  • bad breath

  • headaches

  • tiredness

  • memory loss

  • stress

6. VACCINE: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "vaccine". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.





BEFORE READING / LISTENING

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if  a-h  below are true (T) or false (F).

a.

The article says scientists are a year away from a flu vaccine.

T / F

b.

The article says a vaccine is good for those who have an annual flu jab.

T / F

c.

The vaccine is being tested by two different research teams.

T / F

d.

The vaccine has been tested on mice and monkeys.

T / F

e.

Influenza kills close to 20 million people a year.

T / F

f.

Finding a vaccine is difficult because the virus is always changing.

T / F

g.

Vaccines in the USA reduced the risk of getting flu by 50% last year.

T / F

h.

The new research will not be able to help with a vaccine for HIV.

T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

1.

scientists

a.

character

2.

life-long

b.

information

3.

jab

c.

decide

4.

determine

d.

quickly

5.

data

e.

researchers

6.

every year

f.

alteration

7.

nature

g.

chance

8.

mutation

h.

lasting

9.

risk

i.

annually

10.

rapidly

j.

injection

3. PHRASE MATCH:  (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

1.

Scientists in the USA say they are

a.

of mutation

2.

developing

b.

stone

3.

provide life-

c.

of guesswork

4.

promising

d.

a million people

5.

It's a very good stepping

e.

a vaccine

6.

The flu virus kills up to half

f.

cold

7.

in a constant state

g.

getting closer

8.

create an updated

h.

results

9.

much of the process involves a lot

i.

version

10.

the common

j.

long protection





GAP FILL

Scientists in the USA say they are getting (1) ____________ to developing a vaccine that will provide life-long (2) ____________ against any type of influenza. This could be (3) ____________ news for millions of people around the world who go to the doctor every year to get a flu jab. Two different research teams have been testing new drugs on animals and both have had (4) ____________ results. Trials will soon begin on humans to determine if the test vaccine has similar (5) ____________. Flu expert professor John Oxford told the BBC that: "This is a (6) ____________ forward compared to anything done recently. They have good animal data, not (7) ____________ in mice but in ferrets and monkeys too." He added that: "It's a very good stepping (8) ____________."

 

 

protection
successes
welcome
leap
stone
closer
just
promising

The flu virus kills up to (9) ____________ a million people every year. The problem with finding a vaccine is the ever-changing (10) ____________ of the flu virus. It is in a constant (11) ____________ of mutation. Doctors have to predict which strains of the virus are likely to cause the most (12) ____________ and then create an updated version of the vaccine accordingly. For this (13) ____________, the success rate of most flu vaccines is very low because much of the (14) ____________ involves a lot of guesswork. Scientists say that vaccines in the U.S. reduced the (15) ____________ of catching flu by just 23 per cent last year. The website Inverse.com said the research could, "point to how we can go about making vaccines for other viruses that mutate (16) ____________, like HIV or the common cold".

 

nature
state
risk
reason
half
rapidly
infections
process

 





LISTENING - Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)

getting closer to developing a vaccine that will provide ______

 

a.  life-long protecting
b.  life-length protection
c.  live-long protection
d.  life-long protection

2)

welcome news for millions of people around the world who go to the doctor every year ______

 

a.  to get a flu job
b.  to get a flu jab
c.  to get a flu chap
d.  to get a flu jam

3)

Two different research teams have been testing new ______

 

a.  drugs in animals
b.  drug on animals
c.  drugs on animals
d.  drugs on animal

4)

Trials will soon begin on humans to determine if the test vaccine ______

 

a.  has similar success
b.  has similar successes
c.  has similar successive
d.  has similar success is

5)

They have good animal data, not just in mice but in ferrets ______

 

a.  and too monkeys
b.  and monkeys too
c.  and to monkeys
d.  and monkeys two

6)

The problem with finding a vaccine is the ever-changing nature ______

 

a.  of a flu virus
b.  of the flu virus
c.  of the flu viruses
d.  of a flu viruses

7)

Doctors have to predict which strains of the virus are likely to cause ______

 

a.  the most infections
b.  the must infections
c.  the mast infections
d.  the mist infections

8)

For this reason, the success rate of most flu vaccines ______

 

a.  is very low
b.  is very lowly
c.  is very row
d.  is very law

9)

Scientists say that vaccines in the U.S. reduced the risk of catching flu ______

 

a.  by adjust 23 per cent
b.  by a just 23 per cent
c.  by justly 23 per cent
d.  by just 23 per cent

10)

the research could, "point to how we can go about making vaccines for other viruses ______

 

a.  that mutate rapid
b.  that mutate rapids
c.  that mutate rapidity
d.  that mutate rapidly

LISTENING – Listen and fill in the gaps

Scientists in the USA say they (1) ___________________ to developing a vaccine that will provide life-long protection against any type of influenza. This (2) ___________________ news for millions of people around the world who go to the doctor every year to (3) ___________________. Two different research teams have been testing new drugs on animals and both have had promising results. (4) ___________________ begin on humans to determine if the test vaccine has similar successes. Flu expert professor John Oxford told the BBC that: "This (5) ___________________ compared to anything done recently. They have good animal data, not (6) ___________________ ferrets and monkeys too." He added that: "It's a very good stepping stone."

The flu virus (7) ___________________ million people every year. The problem with finding a vaccine is the ever-changing (8) ________________ virus. It is in a constant state of mutation. Doctors have to predict which strains of the virus (9) ___________________ the most infections and then create an updated version of the vaccine accordingly. For this reason, the success rate of most flu vaccines is very low because much of the process (10) ___________________ guesswork. Scientists say that vaccines in the U.S. (11) ___________________ catching flu by just 23 per cent last year. The website Inverse.com said the research could, "point to how we can go about making vaccines (12) ___________________ that mutate rapidly, like HIV or the common cold".





COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

1.

Where are the scientists from who are getting closer to a vaccine?

2.

What do millions of people go to the doctor for every year?

3.

How many different research teams have been testing on animals?

4.

Who will trials begin on soon?

5.

What other animals did they test on besides ferrets and monkeys?

6.

How many people a year does the flu virus kill?

7.

What does the article say has an "ever-changing nature"?

8.

What does the process involve that makes the success rate low?

9.

What was the reduced risk of catching flu in the US last year?

10.

What other two viruses might the research help?

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ

1.

Where are the scientists from who are getting closer to a vaccine?

6.

How many people a year does the flu virus kill?

 

a) PNG
b) the UAE
c) the USA
d) the UK

 

a) just over 500,000
b) up to half a million
c) millions
d) 500,000

2.

What do millions of people go to the doctor for every year for?

7.

What does the article say has an "ever-changing nature"?

 

a) a flu jab
b) advice
c) tissues
d) an operation

 

a) scientists
b) doctors
c) the vaccine
d) the flu virus

3.

How many different research teams have been testing on animals?

8.

What does the process involve that makes the success rate low?

 

a) 5
b) 4
c) 3
d) 2

 

a) maths
b) guesswork
c) scientists
d) methods

4.

Who will trials begin on soon?

9.

What was the reduced risk of catching flu in the US last year?

 

a) children
b) humans
c) elephants
d) scientists

 

a) 23%
b) 24%
c) 25%
d) 26%

5.

What other animals did they test on besides ferrets and monkeys?

10.

What other two viruses might the research help?

 

a) chimpanzees
b) frogs
c) mice
d) elephants

 

a) chickenpox
b) SARS
c) Ebola
d) HIV and the common cold

ROLE PLAY

Role  A – Toothache

You think toothache is the most important thing scientists should find a cure for. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why cures their things aren't so important. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): hair loss, bad breath or stress.

Role  B – Hair loss

You think hair loss is the most important thing scientists should find a cure for. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why cures their things aren't so important. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): toothache, bad breath or stress.

Role  C – Bad breath

You think bad breath is the most important thing scientists should find a cure for. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why cures their things aren't so important. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): hair loss, toothache or stress.

Role  D – Stress

You think stress is the most important thing scientists should find a cure for. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why cures their things aren't so important. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why):  hair loss, bad breath or toothache.





AFTER READING / LISTENING

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words 'life' and 'long'.

life

 

long

 

 

  • Share your findings with your partners.
  • Make questions using the words you found.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

  • Share your questions with other classmates / groups.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

  • provide
  • welcome
  • teams
  • humans
  • leap
  • stone
  • half
  • nature
  • version
  • risk
  • point
  • rapidly

INFLUENZA SURVEY

Write five GOOD questions about influenza in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper.

When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

 

STUDENT 1

_____________

STUDENT 2

_____________

STUDENT 3

_____________

Q.1.

 

 

 

 

Q.2.

 

 

 

 

Q.3.

 

 

 

 

Q.4.

 

 

 

 

Q.5.

 

 

 

 

  • Now return to your original partner and share and talk about what you found out. Change partners often.
  • Make mini-presentations to other groups on your findings.

INFLUENZA DISCUSSION

STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

1)

What did you think when you read the headline?

2)

What springs to mind when you hear the word 'flu'?

3)

What do you know about the flu virus?

4)

What do you think about what you read?

5)

What vaccines have you had?

6)

What do you think the results will be of the trials on humans?

7)

How often do you get ill?

8)

What are viruses?

9)

Why is it so difficult to find vaccines for viruses?

10)

How dangerous are viruses?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

11)

Did you like reading this article? Why/not?

12)

What do you do to keep healthy?

13)

What is the problem of viruses mutating?

14)

Do you like movies about viruses that endanger the world?

15)

Do you think viruses will fall or rise in number in the future?

16)

How worried are you about viruses?

17)

What do you think it's like to be a flu vaccine researcher?

18)

How can we avoid viruses?

19)

What other benefits could the flu virus have?

20)

What questions would you like to ask the researchers?





DISCUSSION (Write your own questions)

STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

LANGUAGE - CLOZE

Scientists in the USA say they are (1) ____ closer to developing a vaccine that will provide life-long protection against (2) ____ type of influenza. This could be welcome news for millions of people around the world who go to the doctor every year to get a flu (3) ____. Two different research teams have been testing new drugs on animals and both have had promising results. Trials will soon begin on humans to determine (4) ____ the test vaccine has similar successes. Flu expert professor John Oxford told the BBC that: "This is a leap forward compared to anything (5) ____ recently. They have good animal data, not just in mice but in ferrets and monkeys too." He added that: "It's a very good stepping (6) ____."

The flu virus kills (7) ____ to half a million people every year. The problem with finding a vaccine is the ever-changing (8) ____ of the flu virus. It is in a constant state of mutation. Doctors have to predict which (9) ____ of the virus are likely to cause the most infections and then create an updated version of the vaccine accordingly. For this (10) ____, the success rate of most flu vaccines is very low because much of the process (11) ____ a lot of guesswork. Scientists say that vaccines in the U.S. reduced the risk of catching flu by just 23 per cent last year. The website Inverse.com said the research could, "point to how we can go about making vaccines for other viruses that mutate (12) ____, like HIV or the common cold".

Put the correct words from the table below in the above article.

1.

(a)

get

(b)

gets

(c)

getting

(d)

gotten

2.

(a)

any

(b)

all

(c)

whole

(d)

entire

3.

(a)

jab

(b)

job

(c)

jib

(d)

jibe

4.

(a)

if

(b)

weather

(c)

all

(d)

somehow

5.

(a)

doing

(b)

done

(c)

do

(d)

does

6.

(a)

grain

(b)

pebble

(c)

rock

(d)

stone

7.

(a)

down

(b)

over

(c)

up

(d)

from

8.

(a)

naturist

(b)

naturally

(c)

natural

(d)

nature

9.

(a)

strains

(b)

stains

(c)

stems

(d)

steams

10.

(a)

facts

(b)

reason

(c)

because

(d)

motive

11.

(a)

ingrains

(b)

involves

(c)

insteps

(d)

insides

12.

(a)

rapids

(b)

rapidity

(c)

rapidly

(d)

rapid

SPELLING

Paragraph   1

1.

egvoedipnl   a   vaccine

2.

provide   life-long   eorttnipoc

3.

sgionpimr   results

4.

eitdmeren   if   the   test   vaccine   has   similar   successes

5.

Flu   ptxere

6.

moraepcd   to   anything   done   recently

Paragraph   2

7.

a   constant   state   of   ontamtiu

8.

predict   which   sstianr   of   the   virus

9.

cause   the   most   otnsniicef

10.

an   updated   version   of   the   vaccine   rliyagncdco

11.

the   process   solneviv   a   lot   of   guesswork

12.

mutate   drlyaip

PUT THE TEXT BACK TOGETHER

Number these lines in the correct order.

(    )

long protection against any type of influenza. This could be welcome news for millions

(    )

jab. Two different research teams have been testing new drugs on animals and both have had promising

(    )

of people around the world who go to the doctor every year to get a flu

(    )

likely to cause the most infections and then create an updated version of the vaccine

(    )

making vaccines for other viruses that mutate rapidly, like HIV or the common cold".

(    )

The flu virus kills up to half a million people every year. The problem with finding a vaccine is the ever-changing

(    )

involves a lot of guesswork. Scientists say that vaccines in the U.S. reduced the risk of catching flu

(    )

results. Trials will soon begin on humans to determine if the test vaccine has similar successes. Flu expert

(    )

nature of the flu virus. It is in a constant state of mutation. Doctors have to predict which strains of the virus are

1  )

Scientists in the USA say they are getting closer to developing a vaccine that will provide life-

(    )

by just 23 per cent last year. The website Inverse.com said the research could, "point to how we can go about

(    )

animal data, not just in mice but in ferrets and monkeys too." He added that: "It's a very good stepping stone."

(    )

professor John Oxford told the BBC that: "This is a leap forward compared to anything done recently. They have good

(    )

accordingly. For this reason, the success rate of most flu vaccines is very low because much of the process

PUT THE WORDS IN THE RIGHT ORDER

1.

getting   vaccine   closer   to   They   developing   are   a   .  

2.

protection   against   any   type   of   influenza  Provide   life  -   long   .  

3.

news   of   This   welcome   millions   be   for   people   could   .  

4.

vaccine   Determine   has   if   similar   the   successes   test   .  

5.

compared   to   A   anything   leap   done   forward   recently   .  

6.

flu   up   a   every   The  kills   half   people   virus   to  million   year   .

7.

nature   flu   The   changing   the   -   of   virus   ever   .  

8.

likely   are  virus   the  of   strains  which  predict   to   have   Doctors  .

9.

flu   vaccines   is   very   low   The   success   rate   of   most   .  

10.

viruses   Making   that   vaccines   mutate   for   rapidly   other   .  

 

CIRCLE THE CORRECT WORD (20 PAIRS)

Scientists in the USA say they are getting closely / closer to developing a vaccine that will provide life-long protection / protective against any type of influenza. This could be welcome news for million / millions of people around the world who go to the doctor every year to / for get a flu jab. Two different research teams have been tested / testing new drugs on animals and both have had promising / promised results. Trials will soon begin on humans to determine / determined if the test vaccine has similar successes. Flu expert / expertise professor John Oxford told the BBC that: "This is a leap forward compared to anything done recently / recent. They have good animal data, not just in mice but in ferrets and monkeys too." He added that: "It's a very good / goodly stepping stone."

The flu virus kills up / down to half a million people every year. The problem with finding a vaccine is the ever-changing / ever-charging nature of the flu virus. It is in a constant static / state of mutation. Doctors have to predict which strains of the viral / virus are likely to cause the most infections and then create an updated version / vision of the vaccine accordingly. For this reason, the successful / success rate of most flu vaccines is very low because much of the process involves a lot of guesswork. Scientists say that vaccines in the U.S. reduced the risky / risk of catching flu by / at just 23 per cent last year. The website Inverse.com said the research could, "point to how we can come / go about making vaccines for other viruses that mutate rapidly, like / likely HIV or the common cold".

Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.





INSERT THE VOWELS (a, e, i, o, u)

Sc__nt_sts _n th_ _S_ s_y th_y _r_ g_tt_ng cl_s_r t_ d_v_l_p_ng _ v_cc_n_ th_t w_ll pr_v_d_ l_f_-l_ng pr_t_ct__n _g__nst _ny typ_ _f _nfl__nz_. Th_s c__ld b_ w_lc_m_ n_ws f_r m_ll__ns _f p__pl_ _r__nd th_ w_rld wh_ g_ t_ th_ d_ct_r _v_ry y__r t_ g_t _ fl_ j_b. Tw_ d_ff_r_nt r_s__rch t__ms h_v_ b__n t_st_ng n_w dr_gs _n _n_m_ls _nd b_th h_v_ h_d pr_m_s_ng r_s_lts. Tr__ls w_ll s__n b_g_n _n h_m_ns t_ d_t_rm_n_ _f th_ t_st v_cc_n_ h_s s_m_l_r s_cc_ss_s. Fl_ _xp_rt pr_f_ss_r J_hn _xf_rd t_ld th_ BBC th_t: "Th_s _s _ l__p f_rw_rd c_mp_r_d t_ _nyth_ng d_n_ r_c_ntly. Th_y h_v_ g__d _n_m_l d_t_, n_t j_st _n m_c_ b_t _n f_rr_ts _nd m_nk_ys t__." H_ _dd_d th_t: "_t's _ v_ry g__d st_pp_ng st_n_."

Th_ fl_ v_r_s k_lls _p t_ h_lf _ m_ll__n p__pl_ _v_ry y__r. Th_ pr_bl_m w_th f_nd_ng _ v_cc_n_ _s th_ _v_r-ch_ng_ng n_t_r_ _f th_ fl_ v_r_s. _t _s _n _ c_nst_nt st_t_ _f m_t_t__n. D_ct_rs h_v_ t_ pr_d_ct wh_ch str__ns _f th_ v_r_s _r_ l_k_ly t_ c__s_ th_ m_st _nf_ct__ns _nd th_n cr__t_ _n _pd_t_d v_rs__n _f th_ v_cc_n_ _cc_rd_ngly. F_r th_s r__s_n, th_ s_cc_ss r_t_ _f m_st fl_ v_cc_n_s _s v_ry l_w b_c__s_ m_ch _f th_ pr_c_ss _nv_lv_s _ l_t _f g__ssw_rk. Sc__nt_sts s_y th_t v_cc_n_s _n th_ _.S. r_d_c_d th_ r_sk _f c_tch_ng fl_ by j_st 23 p_r c_nt l_st y__r. Th_ w_bs_t_ _nv_rs_.c_m s__d th_ r_s__rch c__ld, "p__nt t_ h_w w_ c_n g_ _b__t m_k_ng v_cc_n_s f_r _th_r v_r_s_s th_t m_t_t_ r_p_dly, l_k_ H_V _r th_ c_mm_n c_ld".

PUNCTUATE THE TEXT AND ADD CAPITALS

scientists in the usa say they are getting closer to developing a vaccine that will provide life-long protection against any type of influenza this could be welcome news for millions of people around the world who go to the doctor every year to get a flu jab two different research teams have been testing new drugs on animals and both have had promising results trials will soon begin on humans to determine if the test vaccine has similar successes flu expert professor john oxford told the bbc that "this is a leap forward compared to anything done recently they have good animal data not just in mice but in ferrets and monkeys too" he added that "it's a very good stepping stone"

the flu virus kills up to half a million people every year the problem with finding a vaccine is the ever-changing nature of the flu virus it is in a constant state of mutation doctors have to predict which strains of the virus are likely to cause the most infections and then create an updated version of the vaccine accordingly for this reason the success rate of most flu vaccines is very low because much of the process involves a lot of guesswork scientists say that vaccines in the us reduced the risk of catching flu by just 23 per cent last year the website inversecom said the research could "point to how we can go about making vaccines for other viruses that mutate rapidly like hiv or the common cold"

PUT A SLASH ( / ) WHERE THE SPACES ARE

ScientistsintheUSAsaytheyaregettingclosertodevelopingavaccineth
atwillprovidelife-longprotectionagainstanytypeofinfluenza.Thiscoul
dbewelcomenewsformillionsofpeoplearoundtheworldwhogotothedo
ctoreveryyeartogetaflujab.Twodifferentresearchteamshavebeente
stingnewdrugsonanimalsandbothhavehadpromisingresults.Trialswi
llsoonbeginonhumanstodetermineifthetestvaccinehassimilarsucces
ses.FluexpertprofessorJohnOxfordtoldtheBBCthat:"Thisisaleapforw
ardcomparedtoanythingdonerecently.Theyhavegoodanimaldata,no
tjustinmicebutinferretsandmonkeystoo."Headdedthat:"It'saverygo
odsteppingstone."Thefluviruskillsuptohalfamillionpeopleeveryyear.
Theproblemwithfindingavaccineistheever-changingnatureofthef
luvirus.Itisinaconstantstateofmutation.Doctorshavetopredictwhich
strainsofthevirusarelikelytocausethemostinfectionsandthencreatea
nupdatedversionofthevaccineaccordingly.Forthisreason,thesuccess
rateofmostfluvaccinesisverylowbecausemuchoftheprocessinvolves
alotofguesswork.ScientistssaythatvaccinesintheU.S.reducedtheris
kofcatchingflubyjust23percentlastyear.ThewebsiteInverse.comsai
dtheresearchcould,"pointtohowwecangoaboutmakingvaccinesforot
hervirusesthatmutaterapidly,likeHIVorthecommoncold".

FREE WRITING

Write about influenza for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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ACADEMIC WRITING

Compare and contrast the dangers of computer viruses and biological viruses. Which are more dangerous? Why?

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HOMEWORK

1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google’s search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.

2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about the research on the influenza vaccine. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.

3. INFLUENZA: Make a poster about influenza. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?

4. VIRUSES: Write a magazine article about whether viruses will rise or fall in number in the future. Include imaginary interviews with people who think they will rise and with people who think they will fall.

Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).

5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.

6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on viruses. Ask him/her three questions about them. Give him/her three ideas on how we can protect ourselves against them. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

ANSWERS

TRUE / FALSE (p.4)

a

F

b

T

c

T

d

T

e

F

f

T

g

F

h

F

SYNONYM MATCH (p.4)

1.

scientists

a.

researchers

2

life-long

b.

lasting

3.

jab

c.

injection

4.

determine

d.

decide

5.

data

e.

information

6.

every year

f.

annually

7.

nature

g.

character

8.

mutation

h.

alteration

9.

risk

i.

chance

10.

rapidly

j.

quickly

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS (p.8)

1.

The USA

2.

A flu jab

3.

Two

4.

Humans

5.

Mice

6.

Up to half a million

7.

The flu virus

8.

Guesswork

9.

23%

10.

HIV and the common cold

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ (p.9)

1.

c

2.

a

3.

d

4.

b

5.

c

6.

d

7.

b

8.

d

9.

a

10.

d

ALL OTHER EXERCISES

Please check for yourself by looking at the Article on page 2.
(It's good for your English ;-)

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