The Reading / Listening - Level 6

Eating habits and food processing skills from around two million years ago helped humans to evolve and develop language. Researchers from Harvard University say that learning to cut meat up and using basic stone tools to process food was a crucial step in our evolutionary process. The fact that we cut food up or pounded and crushed it meant we needed less time for chewing. This gave our mouths more free time to develop language and communicate. The researchers estimate that cutting up meat and other food saved early humans as many as 2.5 million chews per year. In contrast, the chimpanzee spends half of its day chewing, which means it has less time to communicate.



The researchers also said the shape of our face changed because we needed to chew less. Our jaws and teeth became smaller because we had learnt to cut up food. Professor Daniel Lieberman said: "We went from having snouts and big teeth and large chewing muscles to having smaller teeth, smaller chewing muscles, and snoutless faces. Those changes, and others, allowed for the selection for speech and other shifts in the head, like bigger brains." Dr Lieberman chewed raw goat meat to test his theory. He said: "You chew and you chew and you chew and you chew, and nothing happens." He added that to some extent, slicing meat into smaller pieces before chewing, "is the simplest technology of all".

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Level 4  or  Level 5

Sources
  • http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/12189080/Table-manners-how-learning-to-cut-up-food-was-crucial-to-human-evolution.html
  • http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-raw-meat-stone-tools-evolution-20160309-story.html
  • http://www.livescience.com/53994-paleo-diet-helped-humans-evolve-speech.html


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



The 40 Lesson Activities on the PDF Handout

WARM-UPS

1. HUMAN EVOLUTION: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about human evolution. Change partners often and share your findings.

2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?

 

eating habits / food processing / tools / crucial / evolutionary process / chimpanzee / jaws / teeth / muscles / selection / bigger brains / theory / slicing meat / technology

Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.

3. EVOLUTION: How will we evolve from now? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

Changes

Are they good changes?

Height

 

 

Intelligence

 

 

Skin colour

 

 

Hair

 

 

Health

 

 

Eyes

 

 

4. CHEWING: Students A strongly believe we should chew our food more; Students B strongly believe we shouldn't.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.

MY e-BOOK
See a sample

5. BASIC TOOLS: Rank these with your partner. Put the things most important for our evolution at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • fire

  • knives

  • clothes

  • the wheel

  • computers

  • penicillin

  • electricity

  • spears

6. DEVELOP: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "develop". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.





BEFORE READING / LISTENING

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if  a-h  below are true (T) or false (F).

a.

The food processing skills mentioned happened two million years ago.

T / F

b.

The research is from Cambridge University.

T / F

c.

Our speaking skills developed because we needed to chew less.

T / F

d.

Chimpanzees spend about half their days chewing.

T / F

e.

The shape of our face changed because we needed to chew less.

T / F

f.

Our teeth got bigger because we needed to chew less.

T / F

g.

One of the researchers chewed raw chicken to prove his theory.

T / F

h.

The researcher said slicing meat was a very advanced technology.

T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

1.

skills

a.

prehistoric

2.

develop

b.

degree

3.

crucial

c.

progress

4.

estimate

d.

alterations

5.

early

e.

examine

6.

shape

f.

capabilities

7.

changes

g.

structure

8.

test

h.

guess

9.

theory

i.

key

10.

extent

j.

notion

3. PHRASE MATCH:  (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

1.

eating

a.

test his theory

2.

food

b.

tools

3.

using basic stone

c.

brains

4.

crucial steps in our evolutionary

d.

its day chewing

5.

the chimpanzee spends half of

e.

habits

6.

chewing

f.

nothing happens

7.

bigger

g.

of all

8.

Lieberman chewed raw goat meat to

h.

processing

9.

you chew and you chew, and

i.

muscles

10.

the simplest technology

j.

process





GAP FILL

Eating habits and food processing (1) ____________ from around two million years ago helped humans to (2) ____________ and develop language. Researchers from Harvard University say that learning to cut meat up and using (3) ____________ stone tools to process food were crucial steps in our evolutionary (4) ____________. The fact that we cut food up or pounded and crushed it meant we needed less time for chewing. This gave our mouths more free time to (5) ____________ language and communicate. The researchers estimate that cutting up meat and other food saved (6) ____________ humans as many as 2.5 million chews per year. In contrast, the chimpanzee spends (7) ____________ of its day chewing, which means it has (8) ____________ time to communicate.

 

 

process
skills
early
less
basic
evolve
half
develop

The researchers also said the (9) ____________ of our face changed because we needed to chew less. Our jaws and teeth became smaller because we had (10) ____________ to cut up food. Professor Daniel Lieberman said: "We went from having (11) ____________ and big teeth and large chewing muscles to having smaller teeth, smaller chewing (12) ____________, and snoutless faces. Those changes, and others, allowed for the selection for speech and other (13) ____________ in the head, like bigger brains." Dr Lieberman chewed (14) ____________ goat meat to test his theory. He said: "You chew and you chew and you chew and you chew, and (15) ____________ happens." He added that to some extent, slicing meat into smaller pieces before chewing, "is the (16) ____________ technology of all".

 

shifts
learnt
nothing
shape
simplest
muscles
snouts
raw





LISTENING - Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)

food processing skills from around two million years ago helped ______

 

a.  humans to revolve
b.  humans to devolve
c.  humans to evolve
d.  humans to involve

2)

learning to cut meat up and using basic stone tools to process food ______

 

a.  were crucial step
b.  were crucial steps
c.  were crucial steppes
d.  were crucial strep

3)

The fact that we cut food up or pounded and crushed it meant we needed less ______

 

a.  time form chewing
b.  time fore chewing
c.  time fort chewing
d.  time for chewing

4)

This gave our mouths more free time to develop language ______

 

a.  and communicates
b.  and communicate
c.  and communicated
d.  and communicator

5)

cutting up meat and other food saved early humans as many as 2.5 million ______

 

a.  chews fir year
b.  chews nor year
c.  chews far year
d.  chews per year

6)

The researchers also said the shape of our face changed because we ______

 

a.  needed to chew less
b.  needed to chews less
c.  needed to chewed less
d.  needed to chewy less

7)

Our jaws and teeth became smaller because we had learnt ______

 

a.  to cuts up food
b.  to cut up food
c.  to cut upped food
d.  to cut ups food

8)

allowed for the selection for speech and other shifts in the head, ______

 

a.  like biggest brains
b.  like biggish brains
c.  like beginner brains
d.  like bigger brains

9)

Dr Lieberman chewed raw goat meat to ______

 

a.  test his theory
b.  test his theories
c.  test his theorise
d.  test his theory is

10)

slicing meat into smaller pieces before chewing is the simplest ______

 

a.  technology off all
b.  technology of all
c.  technology of fall
d.  technology off fall

LISTENING – Listen and fill in the gaps

Eating habits and food processing skills (1) ___________________ million years ago helped humans to (2) ___________________ language. Researchers from Harvard University say that learning to cut meat up and using basic stone tools to process food were (3) ___________________ our evolutionary process. The fact that we cut food up or pounded and crushed it meant we needed (4) ___________________ chewing. This gave our mouths more free time to develop language and communicate. The researchers estimate that cutting up meat and (5) ___________________ early humans as many as 2.5 million chews per year. In contrast, the chimpanzee spends half of its day chewing, which (6) __________________ time to communicate.

The researchers also said (7) ___________________ face changed because we needed to chew less. Our jaws and teeth became smaller because we had (8) ___________________ food. Professor Daniel Lieberman said: "We went from having snouts and big teeth (9) ___________________ muscles to having smaller teeth, smaller chewing muscles, and snoutless faces. Those changes, and (10) ___________________ the selection for speech and other shifts in the head, like bigger brains." Dr Lieberman chewed raw goat meat (11) ___________________. He said: "You chew and you chew and you chew and you chew, (12) ___________________." He added that to some extent, slicing meat into smaller pieces before chewing, "is the simplest technology of all".

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

1.

What did eating habits help to develop two million years ago?

2.

Which university conducted the research?

3.

What did we need to do less because we cut meat up?

4.

How many chews per year did cutting up meat save early humans?

5.

How much of the day does a chimpanzee spend chewing?

6.

What did the need to chew less change the shape of?

7.

What became smaller because of the need to chew less?

8.

What part of our bodies became bigger?

9.

What kind of meat did a researcher chew to test his theory?

10.

What did the researcher say was the simplest technology of all?

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ

1.

What did eating habits help to develop two million years ago?

6.

What did the need to chew less change the shape of?

 

a) table manners
b) cutlery
c) language
d) roasted meat

 

a) dinner tables
b) our face
c) shops
d) knives

2.

Which university conducted the research?

7.

What became smaller because of the need to chew less?

 

a) Harvard
b) Sorbonne
c) Oxford
d) Tokyo

 

a) our tongue
b) knives
c) saucepans
d) our teeth

3.

What did we need to do less because we cut meat up?

8.

What part of our bodies became bigger?

 

a) hunt
b) cook
c) speak
d) chew

 

a) our hands
b) our brain
c) our jaw
d) our tongue

4.

How many chews per year did cutting up meat save early humans?

9.

What kind of meat did a researcher chew to test his theory?

 

a) 25,000,000
b) 2,500,000
c) 250,000
d) 250,000,000

 

a) goat
b) camel
c) chicken
d) horse

5.

How much of the day does a chimpanzee spend chewing?

10.

What did the researcher say was the simplest technology of all?

 

a) a fifth
b) two-thirds
c) half
d) three-quarters

 

a) chewing
b) cooking food
c) talking
d) slicing meat

ROLE PLAY

Role  A – Fire

You think fire was the most important thing for human evolution. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things weren't so important. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): clothes, the wheel or spears.

Role  B – Clothes

You think clothes were the most important things for human evolution. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things weren't so important. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): fire, the wheel or spears.

Role  C – The wheel

You think the wheel was the most important thing for human evolution. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things weren't so important. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): clothes, fire or spears.

Role  D – Spears

You think spears were the most important things for human evolution. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things weren't so important. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why):  clothes, the wheel or fire.





AFTER READING / LISTENING

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words 'human' and 'evolution'.

human

 

evolution

 

 

  • Share your findings with your partners.
  • Make questions using the words you found.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

  • Share your questions with other classmates / groups.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

  • habits
  • basic
  • fact
  • free
  • 2.5
  • half
  • shape
  • because
  • faces
  • bigger
  • nothing
  • all

HUMAN EVOLUTION SURVEY

Write five GOOD questions about human evolution in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper.

When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

 

STUDENT 1

_____________

STUDENT 2

_____________

STUDENT 3

_____________

Q.1.

 

 

 

 

Q.2.

 

 

 

 

Q.3.

 

 

 

 

Q.4.

 

 

 

 

Q.5.

 

 

 

 

  • Now return to your original partner and share and talk about what you found out. Change partners often.
  • Make mini-presentations to other groups on your findings.

HUMAN EVOLUTION DISCUSSION

STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

1)

What did you think when you read the headline?

2)

What springs to mind when you hear the word 'chew'?

3)

What do you think about what you read?

4)

What do you know about human evolution?

5)

Would eating raw food mean you speak less?

6)

How important is chewing?

7)

What did your parents tell you about chewing?

8)

How much of the day do you spend chewing?

9)

Is chewing gum important?

10)

Does food taste better the more we chew it?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

11)

Did you like reading this article? Why/not?

12)

Is it good that the shape of our face changed?

13)

What things do you most like chewing?

14)

If we only have soup and never chew, would we talk more?

15)

What do you think of chewing raw meat?

16)

Is there anything you don't like chewing?

17)

How else does food affect communication?

18)

Is this the simplest form of technology?

19)

How will we evolve in the next million years?

20)

What questions would you like to ask the researchers?





DISCUSSION (Write your own questions)

STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

LANGUAGE - CLOZE

Eating habits and food processing (1) ____ from around two million years ago helped humans to (2) ____ and develop language. Researchers from Harvard University say that learning to cut meat up and using basic (3) ____ tools to process food were crucial steps in our evolutionary process. The fact that we cut food up or pounded and crushed it (4) ____ we needed less time for chewing. This gave our mouths more free time to develop language and communicate. The researchers estimate that cutting up meat and other food (5) ____ early humans as many as 2.5 million chews per year. In (6) ____, the chimpanzee spends half of its day chewing, which means it has less time to communicate.

The researchers also said the (7) ____ of our face changed because we needed to chew less. Our jaws and teeth became smaller because we had learnt to cut up food. Professor Daniel Lieberman said: "We went from (8) ____ snouts and big teeth and large chewing muscles to having smaller teeth, smaller chewing muscles, and snoutless faces. Those changes, and others, (9) ____ for the selection for speech and other shifts in the head, like bigger brains." Dr Lieberman chewed raw goat meat to test his (10) ____. He said: "You chew and you chew and you chew and you chew, and (11) ____ happens." He added that to some extent, slicing meat into smaller pieces before chewing, "is the simplest technology of (12) ____ ".

Put the correct words from the table below in the above article.

1.

(a)

skillful

(b)

skill

(c)

skilled

(d)

skills

2.

(a)

devolve

(b)

revolve

(c)

involve

(d)

evolve

3.

(a)

stoned

(b)

stone

(c)

stones

(d)

stony

4.

(a)

means

(b)

meaning

(c)

meant

(d)

meanie

5.

(a)

rescued

(b)

liberated

(c)

saved

(d)

safeguarded

6.

(a)

contrast

(b)

contest

(c)

contents

(d)

conditions

7.

(a)

outline

(b)

shape

(c)

dense

(d)

borders

8.

(a)

having

(b)

making

(c)

creating

(d)

owning

9.

(a)

let

(b)

allowed

(c)

permitted

(d)

authorised

10.

(a)

testing

(b)

examine

(c)

theory

(d)

notional

11.

(a)

it

(b)

all

(c)

nothing

(d)

none

12.

(a)

whole

(b)

every

(c)

entire

(d)

all

SPELLING

Paragraph 1

1.

food esocpnrgis

2.

oevlve and develop

3.

crucial steps in our evolutionary spcseor

4.

we cut food up or dednoup and crushed it

5.

The researchers meisetat

6.

In trosctna, the chimpanzee spends…

Paragraph 2

7.

Our wjas and teeth became smaller

8.

large chewing lsemscu

9.

the otlneiesc for speech

10.

test his hreoty

11.

to some ntexte

12.

the simplest gyothelcno of all

PUT THE TEXT BACK TOGETHER

Number these lines in the correct order.

(    )

stone tools to process food were crucial steps in our evolutionary process. The fact that we cut food up or pounded and

(    )

crushed it meant we needed less time for chewing. This gave our mouths more free time to develop language

1  )

Eating habits and food processing skills from around two million years ago helped humans to

(    )

humans as many as 2.5 million chews per year. In contrast, the chimpanzee spends half

(    )

in the head, like bigger brains." Dr Lieberman chewed raw goat meat to test his

(    )

The researchers also said the shape of our face changed because we needed to chew less. Our jaws and

(    )

of its day chewing, which means it has less time to communicate.

(    )

from having snouts and big teeth and large chewing muscles to having smaller teeth, smaller chewing

(    )

and communicate. The researchers estimate that cutting up meat and other food saved early

(    )

extent, slicing meat into smaller pieces before chewing, "is the simplest technology of all".

(    )

evolve and develop language. Researchers from Harvard University say that learning to cut meat up and using basic

(    )

theory. He said: "You chew and you chew and you chew and you chew, and nothing happens." He added that to some

(    )

teeth became smaller because we had learnt to cut up food. Professor Daniel Lieberman said: "We went

(    )

muscles, and snoutless faces. Those changes, and others, allowed for the selection for speech and other shifts

PUT THE WORDS IN THE RIGHT ORDER

1.

skills   years   two   Food   ago   from   processing   million   around   .  

2.

stone   tools   Learning   to   cut   meat   up   and   using   basic   .  

3.

time   to   develop   language  This   gave   our   mouths  more   free   .  

4.

humans  per   2.5  early   chews  as   Saved  million   many  as  year   .

5.

,   contrast  In  chewing   day  its   of  half   spends  chimpanzee  the   .  

6.

to   changed   needed   less   face   we   chew   Our   because   .  

7.

selection   and   in   The   speech   shifts   head   for   other   the   .  

8.

test   his   theory   Dr   chewed   raw   goat   Lieberman   meat   to   .  

9.

chew  happens  ,  and  and  and  you   you  You  nothing  chew  chew  .

10.

meat   Slicing   chewing   before   pieces   smaller   into   .  

CIRCLE THE CORRECT WORD (20 PAIRS)

Eating habits / habit and food processing skills from around two million years ago helped humans to dissolve / evolve and develop language. Researchers from Harvard University say that learning / learns to cut meat up and using basic stone tool / tools to process food were crucially / crucial steps in our evolutionary process. The fact that we cut food up or pounded and crashed / crushed it meant we needed less time / timing for chewing. This gave our mouths more free time to developed / develop language and communicate. The researchers estimates / estimate that cutting up meat and other food saved early humans as many as 2.5 million chews per year. In contrast, the chimpanzee spends half / halve of its day chewing, which means it has less time to communicate.

The researchers also said the shape / shapely of our face changed because we needed to chew / chewy less. Our jaws and teeth became smaller because we had learning / learnt to cut up food. Professor Daniel Lieberman said: "We left / went from having snouts and big teeth and large chewing muscles to having smaller teeth, smaller chewed / chewing muscles, and snoutless faces. Those changes, and others, allowed / allowance for the selection for speech and other shifts / shafts in the head, like bigger brains." Dr Lieberman chewed raw goat meat to test his theoretic / theory. He said: "You chew and you chew and you chew and you chew, and nothing happens / happening." He added that to some extent, slicing meat into smaller pieces before chewing, "is the simplest technology of whole / all".

Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

INSERT THE VOWELS (a, e, i, o, u)

__t_ng h_b_ts _nd f__d pr_c_ss_ng sk_lls fr_m _r__nd tw_ m_ll__n y__rs _g_ h_lp_d h_m_ns t_ _v_lv_ _nd d_v_l_p l_ng__g_. R_s__rch_rs fr_m H_rv_rd _n_v_rs_ty s_y th_t l__rn_ng t_ c_t m__t _p _nd _s_ng b_s_c st_n_ t__ls t_ pr_c_ss f__d w_r_ cr_c__l st_ps _n __r _v_l_t__n_ry pr_c_ss. Th_ f_ct th_t w_ c_t f__d _p _r p__nd_d _nd cr_sh_d _t m__nt w_ n__d_d l_ss t_m_ f_r ch_w_ng. Th_s g_v_ __r m__ths m_r_ fr__ t_m_ t_ d_v_l_p l_ng__g_ _nd c_mm_n_c_t_. Th_ r_s__rch_rs _st_m_t_ th_t c_tt_ng _p m__t _nd _th_r f__d s_v_d __rly h_m_ns _s m_ny _s 2.5 m_ll__n ch_ws p_r y__r. _n c_ntr_st, th_ ch_mp_nz__ sp_nds h_lf _f _ts d_y ch_w_ng, wh_ch m__ns _t h_s l_ss t_m_ t_ c_mm_n_c_t_.

Th_ r_s__rch_rs _ls_ s__d th_ sh_p_ _f __r f_c_ ch_ng_d b_c__s_ w_ n__d_d t_ ch_w l_ss. __r j_ws _nd t__th b_c_m_ sm_ll_r b_c__s_ w_ h_d l__rnt t_ c_t _p f__d. Pr_f_ss_r D_n__l L__b_rm_n s__d: "W_ w_nt fr_m h_v_ng sn__ts _nd b_g t__th _nd l_rg_ ch_w_ng m_scl_s t_ h_v_ng sm_ll_r t__th, sm_ll_r ch_w_ng m_scl_s, _nd sn__tl_ss f_c_s. Th_s_ ch_ng_s, _nd _th_rs, _ll_w_d f_r th_ s_l_ct__n f_r sp__ch _nd _th_r sh_fts _n th_ h__d, l_k_ b_gg_r br__ns." Dr L__b_rm_n ch_w_d r_w g__t m__t t_ t_st h_s th__ry. H_ s__d: "Y__ ch_w _nd y__ ch_w _nd y__ ch_w _nd y__ ch_w, _nd n_th_ng h_pp_ns." H_ _dd_d th_t t_ s_m_ _xt_nt, sl_c_ng m__t _nt_ sm_ll_r p__c_s b_f_r_ ch_w_ng, "_s th_ s_mpl_st t_chn_l_gy _f _ll".

PUNCTUATE THE TEXT AND ADD CAPITALS

eating habits and food processing skills from around two million years ago helped humans to evolve and develop language researchers from harvard university say that learning to cut meat up and using basic stone tools to process food were crucial steps in our evolutionary process the fact that we cut food up or pounded and crushed it meant we needed less time for chewing this gave our mouths more free time to develop language and communicate the researchers estimate that cutting up meat and other food saved early humans as many as 25 million chews per year in contrast the chimpanzee spends half of its day chewing which means it has less time to communicate

the researchers also said the shape of our face changed because we needed to chew less our jaws and teeth became smaller because we had learnt to cut up food professor daniel lieberman said "we went from having snouts and big teeth and large chewing muscles to having smaller teeth smaller chewing muscles and snoutless faces those changes and others allowed for the selection for speech and other shifts in the head like bigger brains" dr lieberman chewed raw goat meat to test his theory he said "you chew and you chew and you chew and you chew and nothing happens" he added that to some extent slicing meat into smaller pieces before chewing "is the simplest technology of all"





PUT A SLASH ( / ) WHERE THE SPACES ARE

Eatinghabitsandfoodprocessingskillsfromaroundtwomillionyearsag
ohelpedhumanstoevolveanddeveloplanguage.ResearchersfromHar
vardUniversitysaythatlearningtocutmeatupandusingbasicstonetool
stoprocessfoodwerecrucialstepsinourevolutionaryprocess.Thefactt
hatwecutfooduporpoundedandcrusheditmeantweneededlesstimefo
rchewing.Thisgaveourmouthsmorefreetimetodeveloplanguageand
communicate.Theresearchersestimatethatcuttingupmeatandotherf
oodsavedearlyhumansasmanyas2.5millionchewsperyear.Incontras
t,thechimpanzeespendshalfofitsdaychewing,whichmeansithaslessti
metocommunicate.Theresearchersalsosaidtheshapeofourfacechan
gedbecauseweneededtochewless.Ourjawsandteethbecamesmaller
becausewehadlearnttocutupfood.ProfessorDanielLiebermansaid:"
Wewentfromhavingsnoutsandbigteethandlargechewingmusclestoh
avingsmallerteeth,smallerchewingmuscles,andsnoutlessfaces.Thos
echanges,andothers,allowedfortheselectionforspeechandothershift
sinthehead,likebiggerbrains."DrLiebermanchewedrawgoatmeattot
esthistheory.Hesaid:"Youchewandyouchewandyouchewandyouche
w,andnothinghappens."Headdedthattosomeextent,slicingmeatinto
smallerpiecesbeforechewing,"isthesimplesttechnologyofall".

FREE WRITING

Write about human evolution for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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ACADEMIC WRITING

Eating raw food is better for us. Discuss.

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HOMEWORK

1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google’s search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.

2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about chewing. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.

3. HUMAN EVOLUTION: Make a poster about human evolution. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?

4. RAW: Write a magazine article about the benefits of eating raw food. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against it.

Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).

5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.

6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on human evolution. Ask him/her three questions about it. Give him/her three opinions on how we will evolve in the future. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

ANSWERS

TRUE / FALSE (p.4)

a

T

b

F

c

T

d

T

e

T

f

F

g

F

h

F

SYNONYM MATCH (p.4)

1.

skills

a.

capabilities

2.

develop

b.

progress

3.

crucial

c.

key

4.

estimate

d.

guess

5.

early

e.

prehistoric

6.

shape

f.

structure

7.

changes

g.

alterations

8.

test

h.

examine

9.

theory

i.

notion

10.

extent

j.

degree

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS (p.8)

1.

Language

2.

Harvard University

3.

Chew

4.

2.5 million

5.

Half the day

6.

Our face

7.

Our jaws and teeth

8.

Our brain

9.

Goat

10.

Slicing meat into smaller pieces

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ (p.9)

1.

c

2.

a

3.

d

4.

b

5.

c

6.

d

7.

b

8.

d

9.

a

10.

d

ALL OTHER EXERCISES

Please check for yourself by looking at the Article on page 2.
(It's good for your English ;-)

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