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Scientists have come [down / up] with a smart but simple way to deal [of / with] carbon dioxide emissions, by turning them back into stone. Researchers in Iceland [pumped / plumped] 220 tons of CO2 deep underground into volcanic rock. It [reacted / reaction] with minerals in the rock and over a relatively short [spatial / space] of time, transformed into a chalk-like solid substance similar to limestone. The team expressed their [surprising / surprise] at both the success and the speed of the CO2 [conversion / convert] . Lead scientist Juerg Matter said: "Of our 220 tons of [injection / injected] CO2, 95 per cent was converted to limestone in less than two years." He added: "It was a [huge / enormous] surprise to all the scientists [involving / involved] in the project, and we thought, 'Wow! This is really fast'."

The scientists hope their experiment will be adapted [on / in] a larger, more industrial scale. It could help to [alleviate / elucidate] the problem of growing CO2 emissions entering [the / an] atmosphere and warming [the / a] planet. It could also become a [key / lock] technique in carbon capture and storage (CCS) solutions. Many other CCS techniques have [involving / involved] injecting and trapping CO2 underground. However, there was always the problem of the emissions [leaked / leaking] their way back [above / higher] ground and into the atmosphere. Dr Matter was [enthusiastic / enthusiasm] about his team's experiments. He said: "We need to deal with rising carbon emissions and this is the ultimate [permanently / permanent] storage – turn them back to stone."

Back to the CO2 emissions lesson.

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