The Reading / Listening - Civilization - Level 3

For many decades, scientists believed the earliest humans originated in East Africa. This belief has changed because of a collection of 2.4-million-year-old stone tools found in Algeria. Scientists now believe that Algeria and not East Africa is the cradle of civilization - where humankind began. The new find consists of 250 tools. There were also 296 animal bones. The scientists say the animal bones show that early humans were butchering meat. Dr Mohamed Sahnouni, leader of the project, said: "The evidence from Algeria changes the earlier view that East Africa was the cradle of humankind." He added: "Actually, the whole of Africa was the cradle of humankind."



Archaeologists have been digging at various sites on this project for 25 years. The sharp-edged tools and bones were discovered near the city of Setif, about 200 miles east of Algeria's capital, Algiers. In particular, the animal bones excited the scientists. Dr Sahnouni said it is now clear that humans were butchering animals for meat 600,000 years earlier than previously thought. A Spanish archaeologist said: "The effective use of sharp-edged tools ...suggests that our ancestors were not mere scavengers." She said it wasn't clear whether or not they hunted, but they did compete with other animals to get access to meat. Dr Sahnouni now hopes to find the tool-makers and even older stone tools.

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Civilization - Level 0 Civilization - Level 1   or  Civilization - Level 2

Sources
  • https://edition.cnn.com/2018/11/30/world/human-tools-north-africa-humanity-scli-intl/index.html
  • http://www.sci-news.com/archaeology/oldowan-stone-tools-ain-boucherit-algeria-06672.html
  • https://www.dw.com/en/algeria-the-new-cradle-of-civilization/a-46515910


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. HUMANS: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about humans. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       decades / scientists / humans / stone tools / civilization / animal bones / meat / Africa
       sites / project / capital city / archaeologist / ancestors / scavengers / hunter / hopes
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. ORIGINS: Students A strongly believe it is important to know where humans originated; Students B strongly believe it isn't.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. EARLIEST HUMANS: How did the earliest humans live? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

What did they do?

Is this better than today?

Food

 

 

Shelter

 

 

Hobbies

 

 

Exercise

 

 

Travel

 

 

Fun

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. HUMAN: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "human". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. CIVILIZATION: Rank these with your partner. Put the things that change civilizations most at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • war
  • technology
  • movies and music
  • sport
  • religion
  • Internet
  • science
  • trade

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. decade a. Have a known beginning.
      2. originated b. The society, culture, and way of life of an area.
      3. belief c. A place, process, or event in which something starts or grows.
      4. cradle d. A thinking that something is true or that something exists or is real.
      5. civilization e. A period of ten years.
      6. consists f. All of the facts or information that show a belief or idea is true.
      7. evidence g. Is made up of.

    Paragraph 2

      8. archaeologists h. A family member who was alive a long time ago.
      9. various i. A person who studies human history and prehistory through the digging of sites and looks at very old things.
      10. sites j. Killing and cutting up an animal for food.
      11. bones k. An animal that feeds on dead plant material, dead animals, or trash.
      12. butchering l. A place where a particular event or activity is happening or has happened.
      13. ancestors m. Any of the pieces of hard whitish tissue making up the skeleton in humans and other animals.
      14. scavengers n. Different kinds or sorts.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. For many centuries, scientists thought civilization started in East Africa.   T / F
  2. Stone tools over two million years old were found in Algeria.     T / F
  3. Archaeologists found 296 stone tools and 250 animal bones.     T / F
  4. A scientist said the north of Africa was the cradle of humankind.     T / F
  5. Archaeologists have been working on the project for 25 years.     T / F
  6. Humans cut up animals for meat earlier than we thought.     T / F
  7. An archaeologist said our ancestors were not only scavengers.     T / F
  8. An archaeologist said he hoped to find old buildings.     T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. believed
  2. collection
  3. began
  4. butchering
  5. evidence
  6. various
  7. clear
  8. previously
  9. mere
  10. find
  1. originated
  2. obvious
  3. proof
  4. set
  5. different
  6. just
  7. thought
  8. discover
  9. cutting up
  10. earlier

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. This belief has
  2. The new find consists
  3. early humans were
  4. The evidence from Algeria changes
  5. Africa was the cradle
  6. Archaeologists have been digging
  7. discovered near
  8. 600,000 years earlier than
  9. our ancestors were not
  10. Dr Sahnouni now hopes to find
  1. the city of Setif
  2. of humankind
  3. mere scavengers
  4. of 250 tools
  5. butchering meat
  6. at various sites
  7. the earlier view
  8. the tool-makers
  9. changed
  10. previously thought

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
stone
bones
whole
decades
earlier
find
belief
meat

For many (1) ____________, scientists believed the earliest humans originated in East Africa. This (2) ____________ has changed because of a collection of 2.4-million-year-old (3) ____________ tools found in Algeria. Scientists now believe that Algeria and not East Africa is the cradle of civilization - where humankind began. The new (4) ____________ consists of 250 tools. There were also 296 animal (5) ____________. The scientists say the animal bones show that early humans were butchering (6) ____________. Dr Mohamed Sahnouni, leader of the project, said: "The evidence from Algeria changes the (7) ____________ view that East Africa was the cradle of humankind." He added: "Actually, the (8) ____________ of Africa was the cradle of humankind."

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
clear
ancestors
sharp
older
various
access
particular
previously

Archaeologists have been digging at (9) ____________ sites on this project for 25 years. The (10) ____________ -edged tools and bones were discovered near the city of Setif, about 200 miles east of Algeria's capital, Algiers. In (11) ____________, the animal bones excited the scientists. Dr Sahnouni said it is now (12) ____________ that humans were butchering animals for meat 600,000 years earlier than (13) ____________ thought. A Spanish archaeologist said: "The effective use of sharp-edged tools ...suggests that our (14) ____________ were not mere scavengers." She said it wasn't clear whether or not they hunted, but they did compete with other animals to get (15) ____________ to meat. Dr Sahnouni now hopes to find the tool-makers and even (16) ____________ stone tools.

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)  For many decades, scientists believed the earliest humans ______ East Africa
     a.  originate in
     b.  origin dates in
     c.  originated in
     d.  origin dated in
2)  This belief has changed because of a collection of 2.4-million-year-old ______
     a.  stone tools
     b.  stoned tool
     c.  stones tools
     d.  stone tool
3)  Algeria and not East Africa is the cradle of civilization - where ______
     a.  humanly kind began
     b.  human kindness began
     c.  humankind began
     d.  humane kind began
4)  The scientists say the animal bones show that early humans were ______
     a.  butcher in meat
     b.  butcher ring meat
     c.  butch a ring meat
     d.  butchering meat
5)  Sahnouni, leader of the project, said: "The evidence from Algeria changes ______
     a.  the earlier view
     b.  the earlier views
     c.  the earlier viewer
     d.  the earlier viewed

6)  Archaeologists have been digging at various sites on this ______ years
     a.  project for 25
     b.  projector for 25
     c.  projects for 25
     d.  projection for 25
7)  The sharp-edged tools and bones were discovered ______
     a.  nears the city
     b.  near the city
     c.  nearly the city
     d.  neared the city
8)  butchering animals for meat 600,000 years earlier than ______
     a.  previous  thought
     b.  imperviously thought
     c.  previously thought
     d.  privy as thought
9)  sharp-edged tools ...suggests that our ancestors were ______
     a.  not mare scavengers
     b.  not more scavengers
     c.  not mire scavengers
     d.  not mere scavengers
10) whether or not they hunted, but they did compete with other animals to ______ meat
     a.  get access to
     b.  get excess to
     c.  get ax test to
     d.  get recess to

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

For many decades, scientists believed the earliest (1) ___________________ East Africa. This belief has changed because of a collection of 2.4-million-year-old stone (2) ___________________ Algeria. Scientists now believe that Algeria and not East Africa is the cradle of civilization - where humankind began. The new (3) ___________________ 250 tools. There were also 296 animal bones. The scientists say the animal bones show that early humans (4) ___________________. Dr Mohamed Sahnouni, leader of the project, said: "The evidence from Algeria changes (5) ___________________ that East Africa was the cradle of humankind." He added: "Actually, (6) ___________________ Africa was the cradle of humankind."

Archaeologists have been digging (7) ___________________ on this project for 25 years. The sharp-edged tools and bones were discovered near the city of Setif, about 200 (8) ___________________ Algeria's capital, Algiers. In particular, the animal bones excited the scientists. Dr Sahnouni said it is now clear that humans were butchering (9) ___________________ 600,000 years earlier than previously thought. A Spanish archaeologist said: "The effective use of sharp-edged tools ...suggests (10) ___________________ were not mere scavengers." She said it wasn't clear whether or not they hunted, but they did compete with other animals to (11) ___________________ meat. Dr Sahnouni now hopes to find the tool-makers (12) ___________________ stone tools.

Comprehension questions

  1. For how long did scientists believe humans originated in East Africa?
  2. How old were the stone tools that were found?
  3. How many animal bones did the archeologists find?
  4. What did a scientist say early humans were butchering?
  5. What did an archaeologist say was the "cradle of humankind"?
  6. For how long have the archaeologists been working on the project?
  7. How far is the city of Setif from the capital Algiers?
  8. How many years earlier have we been butchering meat then we thought?
  9. What does the use of tools suggest early humans might have done?
  10. What does the project leader now hope to find?




Multiple choice quiz

1) For how long did scientists believe humans originated in East Africa?
a) generations
b) centuries
c) years
d) decades
2) How old were the stone tools that were found?
a) 2.2 million years old
b) 2.4 million years old
c) 2.6 million years old
d) 2.3 million years old
3) How many animal bones did the archaeologists find?
a) 205
b) 269
c) 296
d) 250
4) What did a scientist say early humans were butchering?
a) meat
b) ideas
c) each other
d) the rainforest
5) What did an archaeologist say was the "cradle of humankind"?
a) Greece
b) Mesopotamia
c) the whole of Africa
d) Arabia

6) For how long have the archaeologists been working on the project?
a) 20 years
b) 25 years
c) 22 years
d) 18 years
7) How far is the city of Setif from the capital Algiers?
a) just over 200 miles
b) exactly 200 miles
c) slightly less than 200 miles
d) about 200 miles
8) How many years earlier have we been butchering meat then we thought?
a) 600,000 years
b) 6 million years
c) 60,000 years
d) sixteen thousand years
9) What does the use of tools suggest early humans might have done?
a) built houses
b) mined
c) hunted
d) made sculptures
10) What does the project leader now hope to find?
a) ancient meat
b) even older stone tools
c) gold
d) clothing

Role play

Role  A – Religion
You think religion is most responsible for changing civilization today. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things don't affect civilization as much. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): the Internet, trade or movies.

Role  B – Internet
You think the Internet is most responsible for changing civilization today. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things don't affect civilization as much. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): religion, trade or movies.

Role  C – Trade
You think trade is most responsible for changing civilization today. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things don't affect civilization as much. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): the Internet, religion or movies.

Role  D – Movies
You think movies are most responsible for changing civilization today. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things don't affect civilization as much. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): the Internet, trade or religion.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'human'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'civilization'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • various
    • city
    • excited
    • thought
    • mere
    • access
    • earliest
    • collection
    • began
    • leader
    • view
    • whole




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - Algeria is the new 'cradle of civilization'

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'human'?
    3. What did early humans do every day?
    4. What did early humans look like?
    5. How was life less stressful 2.4 million years ago?
    6. What would early humans think about today's world?
    7. What would life be like to live in a cave?
    8. Why is it important we know where civilization began?
    9. What did early humans have for breakfast, lunch and dinner?
    10. Would you like to travel back in time 2.4 million years?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'civilization'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. How was life better 2.4 million years ago?
    5. What would working as an archaeologist be like?
    6. Is it better to be a scavenger or hunter?
    7. What are the greatest things about today's civilization?
    8. What will our civilization be like in the future?
    9. What are the most important tools we use today?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the archaeologists?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    For many (1) ____, scientists believed the earliest humans originated in East Africa. This belief has changed because (2) ____ a collection of 2.4-million-year-old stone tools found in Algeria. Scientists now (3) ____ that Algeria and not East Africa is the cradle of civilization - where humankind began. The new find (4) ____ of 250 tools. There were also 296 animal bones. The scientists say the animal bones show that early humans were (5) ____ meat. Dr Mohamed Sahnouni, leader of the project, said: "The evidence from Algeria changes the earlier view that East Africa was the cradle of humankind." He added: "Actually, the (6) ____ of Africa was the cradle of humankind."

    Archaeologists have been digging at (7) ____ sites on this project for 25 years. The sharp-edged tools and bones were discovered near the city of Setif, about 200 miles east (8) ____ Algeria's capital, Algiers. In particular, the animal bones excited the scientists. Dr Sahnouni said it is now (9) ____ that humans were butchering animals for meat 600,000 years earlier than previously thought. A Spanish archaeologist said: "The (10) ____ use of sharp-edged tools ...suggests that our ancestors were not mere scavengers." She said it wasn't clear (11) ____ or not they hunted, but they did compete with other animals to get access to (12) ____. Dr Sahnouni now hopes to find the tool-makers and even older stone tools.

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     decadence     (b)     decades     (c)     decodes     (d)     decants    
    2. (a)     on     (b)     at     (c)     as     (d)     of    
    3. (a)     belief     (b)     believe     (c)     belies     (d)     belly    
    4. (a)     contests     (b)     contents     (c)     consists     (d)     concerts    
    5. (a)     butchering     (b)     butcher     (c)     butchers     (d)     butchered    
    6. (a)     whole     (b)     entire     (c)     all     (d)     every    
    7. (a)     varies     (b)     vary     (c)     variety     (d)     various    
    8. (a)     of     (b)     on     (c)     at     (d)     by    
    9. (a)     clearly     (b)     clear     (c)     cleared     (d)     clearing    
    10. (a)     reflective     (b)     affective     (c)     effective     (d)     infective    
    11. (a)     weather     (b)     if     (c)     whether     (d)     which    
    12. (a)     meaty     (b)     meat     (c)     meet     (d)     meeting

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. For many ceesadd
    2. humans iaedorting in East Africa
    3. because of a illntoecoc of...
    4. The new find tnscssoi of 250 tools
    5. leader of the copjert
    6. the lwoeh of Africa

    Paragraph 2

    1. digging at uirsavo sites
    2. svcodeeidr near the city of Setif
    3. east of Algeria's lciatpa, Algiers
    4. earlier than pueiorlvys thought
    5. The tffevciee use of sharp-edged tools
    6. our ersnastco were not mere scavengers

    Put the text back together

    (...)  not East Africa is the cradle of civilization - where humankind began. The new find consists of 250
    (...)  edged tools and bones were discovered near the city of Setif, about 200 miles east of Algeria's
    (...)  thought. A Spanish archaeologist said: "The effective use of sharp-edged tools ...suggests that our ancestors
    (...)  animals to get access to meat. Dr Sahnouni now hopes to find the tool-makers and even older stone tools.
    (...)  were not mere scavengers." She said it wasn't clear whether or not they hunted, but they did compete with other
    (...)  of a collection of 2.4-million-year-old stone tools found in Algeria. Scientists now believe that Algeria and
    (...)  "The evidence from Algeria changes the earlier view that East Africa was the cradle of
    1  ) For many decades, scientists believed the earliest humans originated in East Africa. This belief has changed because
    (...)  capital, Algiers. In particular, the animal bones excited the scientists. Dr Sahnouni said it is now clear
    (...)  humankind." He added: "Actually, the whole of Africa was the cradle of humankind."
    (...)  tools. There were also 296 animal bones. The scientists say the animal bones show that early
    (...)  Archaeologists have been digging at various sites on this project for 25 years. The sharp-
    (...)  humans were butchering meat. Dr Mohamed Sahnouni, leader of the project, said:
    (...)  that humans were butchering animals for meat 600,000 years earlier than previously

    Put the words in the right order

    1. the  E.   Africa  .  earliest   Scientists  believed   in   humans   originated
    2. collection   stone   A   tools   .   2   .4-million-year-old   of
    3. -   began   .   The   cradle   of   where   humankind   civilization
    4. that   butchering   meat   .   were   humans   early   show   Bones
    5. earlier   from   view   .   Algeria   changes   evidence   the   The
    6. sites   .   been   at   have   digging   various   Archaeologists
    7. were   sharp-edged   tools   bones   and   The   discovered   .
    8. excited   the   bones   animal   scientists   .   the   particular,   In
    9. It   clear   or   hunted   .   wasn't   not   whether   they
    10. access   to   to   Compete   meat   .   with   get   animals

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    For many decades / decodes, scientists believed the earliest humans originated in East Africa. This believe / belief has changed because of a collection / collector of 2.4-million-year-old stone tools finding / found in Algeria. Scientists now believe that Algeria and not East Africa is the cradle of civilization - where humankind began. The new found / find consists of 250 tools. There were again / also 296 animal bones. The scientists say the animal bones show that early humans were butchered / butchering meat. Dr Mohamed Sahnouni, leader of / to the project, said: "The evidence from Algeria changes the earlier view / viewed that East Africa was the cradle of humankind." He added: "Actually, the entire / whole of Africa was the cradle of humankind."

    Archaeologists have been digging at variety / various sites on this project for 25 years. The sharp-edged tools and bones / bony were discovered near the city of Setif, about 200 miles east of / off Algeria's capital, Algiers. In particular, the animal bones exited / excited the scientists. Dr Sahnouni said it is now clear that humane / humans were butchering animals for meat 600,000 years earlier than previously thought / think. A Spanish archaeologist said: "The effected / effective use of sharp-edged tools ...suggests that our ancestors were not mare / mere scavengers." She said it wasn't clear whether or not they hunted / haunted, but they did compete with other animals to get access to meat. Dr Sahnouni now hopes to find the tool-makers and even older stoned / stone tools.

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    F_r m_n y d_c_d_s , s c__ n t_s t s b_l__ v_d t h_ __ r l__ s t h_m_n s _r_g_n_t_d _n E_s t A f r_c_. T h_s b_l__ f h_s c h_n g_d b_c__ s_ _f _ c_l l_c t__ n _f 2 . 4 - m_l l__ n - y__ r -_l d s t_n_ t__ l s f__ n d _n A l g_r__ . S c__ n t_s t s n_w b_l__ v_ t h_t A l g_r__ _n d n_t E_s t A f r_c_ _s t h_ c r_d l_ _f c_v_l_z_t__ n - w h_r_ h_m_n k_n d b_g_n . T h_ n_w f_n d c_n s_s t s _f 2 5 0 t__ l s . T h_r_ w_r_ _l s_ 2 9 6 _n_m_l b_n_s . T h_ s c__ n t_s t s s_y t h_ _n_m_l b_n_s s h_w t h_t __ r l y h_m_n s w_r_ b_t c h_r_n g m__ t . D r M_h_m_d S_h n__ n_, l__ d_r _f t h_ p r_j_c t , s__ d : " T h_ _v_d_n c_ f r_m A l g_r__ c h_n g_s t h_ __ r l__ r v__ w t h_t E_s t A f r_c_ w_s t h_ c r_d l_ _f h_m_n k_n d . " H_ _d d_d : " A c t__ l l y , t h_ w h_l_ _f A f r_c_ w_s t h_ c r_d l_ _f h_m_n k_n d . "

    A r c h___l_g_s t s h_v_ b__ n d_g g_n g _t v_r___s s_t_s _n t h_s p r_j_c t f_r 2 5 y__ r s . T h_ s h_r p -_d g_d t__ l s _n d b_n_s w_r_ d_s c_v_r_d n__ r t h_ c_t y _f S_t_f , _b__ t 2 0 0 m_l_s __ s t _f A l g_r__ ' s c_p_t_l , A l g__ r s . I n p_r t_c_l_r , t h_ _n_m_l b_n_s _x c_t_d t h_ s c__ n t_s t s . D r S_h n__ n_ s__ d _t _s n_w c l__ r t h_t h_m_n s w_r_ b_t c h_r_n g _n_m_l s f_r m__ t 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 y__ r s __ r l__ r t h_n p r_v___s l y t h__ g h t . A S p_n_s h _r c h___l_g_s t s__ d : " T h_ _f f_c t_v_ _s_ _f s h_r p -_d g_d t__ l s . . . s_g g_s t s t h_t __ r _n c_s t_r s w_r_ n_t m_r_ s c_v_n g_r s . " S h_ s__ d _t w_s n ' t c l__ r w h_t h_r _r n_t t h_y h_n t_d , b_t t h_y d_d c_m p_t_ w_t h _t h_r _n_m_l s t_ g_t _c c_s s t_ m__ t . D r S_h n__ n_ n_w h_p_s t_ f_n d t h_ t__ l - m_k_r s _n d _v_n _l d_r s t_n_ t__ l s .

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    for many decades scientists believed the earliest humans originated in east africa this belief has changed because of a collection of 24millionyearold stone tools found in algeria scientists now believe that algeria and not east africa is the cradle of civilization  where humankind began the new find consists of 250 tools there were also 296 animal bones the scientists say the animal bones show that early humans were butchering meat dr mohamed sahnouni leader of the project said the evidence from algeria changes the earlier view that east africa was the cradle of humankind he added actually the whole of africa was the cradle of humankind

    archaeologists have been digging at various sites on this project for 25 years the sharpedged tools and bones were discovered near the city of setif about 200 miles east of algerias capital algiers in particular the animal bones excited the scientists dr sahnouni said it is now clear that humans were butchering animals for meat 600000 years earlier than previously thought a spanish archaeologist said the effective use of sharpedged tools suggests that our ancestors were not mere scavengers she said it wasnt clear whether or not they hunted but they did compete with other animals to get access to meat dr sahnouni now hopes to find the toolmakers and even older stone tools

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    Formanydecades,scientistsbelievedtheearliesthumansoriginatedin
    EastAfrica.Thisbeliefhaschangedbecauseofacollectionof2.4-million-
    year-oldstonetoolsfoundinAlgeria.ScientistsnowbelievethatAlgeri
    aandnotEastAfricaisthecradleofcivilization-wherehumankindbega
    n.Thenewfindconsistsof250tools.Therewerealso296animalbones.T
    hescientistssaytheanimalbonesshowthatearlyhumanswerebutcheri
    ngmeat.DrMohamedSahnouni,leaderoftheproject,said:"Theeviden
    cefromAlgeriachangestheearlierviewthatEastAfricawasthecradleofh
    umankind."Headded:"Actually,thewholeofAfricawasthecradleofhu
    mankind."Archaeologistshavebeendiggingatvarioussitesonthisproj
    ectfor25years.Thesharp-edgedtoolsandboneswerediscoverednear
    thecityofSetif,about200mileseastofAlgeria'scapital,Algiers.Inpartic
    ular,theanimalbonesexcitedthescientists.DrSahnounisaiditisnowcle
    arthathumanswerebutcheringanimalsformeat600,000yearsearliert
    hanpreviouslythought.ASpanisharchaeologistsaid:"Theeffectiveuse
    ofsharp-edgedtools...suggeststhatourancestorswerenotmeresca
    vengers."Shesaiditwasn'tclearwhetherornottheyhunted,buttheydid
    competewithotheranimalstogetaccesstomeat.DrSahnouninowhope
    stofindthetool-makersandevenolderstonetools.

    Free writing

    Write about cradle of civilization for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    It is important we know where civilization started. Discuss.

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. CIVILIZATION: Make a poster about civilization. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. ARCHAEOLOGY: Write a magazine article about increasing spending on archaeology. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on civilization. Ask him/her three questions about this. Give him/her three of your opinions on why it is important to know where civilization began. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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