The Reading / Listening - Cold Air - Level 6

Most of us learn at school that warm air rises and cool air sinks. This has always appeared to be a fundamental principle of science. However, a study from the University of California, Davis found that there are circumstances in which cool air rises. Researchers discovered that in tropical atmospheres, cold air rises because of the lightness of water vapour. Apparently, in warmer and more humid climates, water particles become more buoyant and can help cooler air rise. Lead researcher Dr Da Yang said: "Water vapour has a buoyancy effect which helps release the heat of the atmosphere to space and reduce the degree of warming. Without this lightness of water vapour, the climate warming would be even worse."



The scientists said humid air is lighter than dry air at the same temperatures and pressure. This is called the vapour buoyancy effect. It allows cooler air containing water droplets to rise, which then forms clouds and thunderstorms. The resulting rain has a cooling effect in tropical areas. Another researcher, Seth Seidel, said more research is needed to find out the effects rising cool air has on climate change, and on its impact on curbing the effects of global warming. Seth Seidel said: "Now that we understand how the lightness of water regulates tropical climate, we plan to study whether global climate models accurately represent this effect." The study is published in the journal "Science Advances".

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Cold Air - Level 4  or  Cold Air - Level 5

Sources
  • https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/05/200506162159.htm
  • https://phys.org/news/2020-05-cold-air-riseswhat-earth-climate.html
  • https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/19/eaba1951


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. COLD AIR: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about cold air. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       learn / warm air / fundamental / cool air / tropical / water vapour / buoyancy / climate
       scientists / temperature / pressure / clouds / thunderstorm / global warming / journal
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. COOL AIR: Students A strongly believe cool air is better than war air; Students B strongly believe the opposite.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. WEATHER: What are the good and bad things about these types of waether? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

Good Things

Bad Things

Rain

 

 

Thunderstorms

 

 

Heat

 

 

Humidity

 

 

Snow

 

 

22ºC sunshine

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. SCIENCE: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "science". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. SCHOOL: Rank these with your partner. Put the best school subjects at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • Science
  • Religion
  • History
  • English
  • Sports
  • Maths
  • Literature
  • Art

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. sink a. Being a necessary base or core; of central importance.
      2. fundamental b. Events or facts that cause or help to cause something to happen.
      3. principle c. Go down below the surface of something, especially of a liquid.
      4. circumstances d. A tiny, tiny bit of matter.
      5. vapour e. A gassy, watery substance.
      6. particle f. The ability or tendency to float in water or air or some other fluid.
      7. buoyancy g. A basic truth that is the foundation for a system of belief or behavior or for a chain of reasoning.

    Paragraph 2

      8. pressure h. A newspaper or magazine that deals with a particular subject or professional activity.
      9. droplet i. Control or maintain the rate or speed of a machine or process so that it operates properly.
      10. curbing j. In a way that is correct in all details.
      11. regulate k. Continuous physical force exerted on or against an object by something in contact with it.
      12. accurately l. A very small drop of a liquid.
      13. represent m. Be a specimen or example of; typify.
      14. journal n. Restraining or keeping in check.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. Few of us learn at school that warm air rises.     T / F
  2. There is a study from the University of Davis, California.     T / F
  3. Cold air rises because of the lightness of water vapour.     T / F
  4. Climate change could be worse if cool air didn't rise.     T / F
  5. Dry air is lighter than humid air.     T / F
  6. Rising cool air helps to form thunderstorms and clouds.     T / F
  7. A researcher said more research is needed on warm and hot air.     T / F
  8. The research is published in the journal "Advances Science".     T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. sinks
  2. circumstances
  3. apparently
  4. vapour
  5. release
  6. effect
  7. containing
  8. curbing
  9. regulates
  10. accurately
  1. including
  2. evidently
  3. outcome
  4. precisely
  5. moisture
  6. descends
  7. controls
  8. set free
  9. situations
  10. restraining

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. Most of us learn at school that warm air
  2. a fundamental principle
  3. there are circumstances in
  4. Water vapour has a buoyancy
  5. climate warming would be even
  6. dry air at the same temperatures
  7. forms clouds
  8. The resulting rain has a cooling effect
  9. its impact on curbing
  10. The study is published in
  1. and pressure
  2. which cool air rises
  3. the effects
  4. worse
  5. and thunderstorms
  6. of science
  7. in tropical areas
  8. effect
  9. the journal
  10. rises and cool air sinks

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
study
effect
vapour
even
sinks
degree
tropical
buoyant

Most of us learn at school that warm air rises and cool air (1) ____________. This has always appeared to be a fundamental principle of science. However, a (2) ____________ from the University of California, Davis found that there are circumstances in which cool air rises. Researchers discovered that in (3) ____________ atmospheres, cold air rises because of the lightness of water (4) ____________. Apparently, in warmer and more humid climates, water particles become more (5) ____________ and can help cooler air rise. Lead researcher Dr Da Yang said: "Water vapour has a buoyancy (6) ____________ which helps release the heat of the atmosphere to space and reduce the (7) ____________ of warming. Without this lightness of water vapour, the climate warming would be (8) ____________ worse."

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
clouds
curbing
journal
humid
accurately
research
allows
lightness

The scientists said (9) ____________ air is lighter than dry air at the same temperatures and pressure. This is called the vapour buoyancy effect. It (10) ____________ cooler air containing water droplets to rise, which then forms (11) ____________ and thunderstorms. The resulting rain has a cooling effect in tropical areas. Another researcher, Seth Seidel, said more (12) ____________ is needed to find out the effects rising cool air has on climate change, and on its impact on (13) ____________ the effects of global warming. Seth Seidel said: "Now that we understand how the (14) ____________ of water regulates tropical climate, we plan to study whether global climate models (15) ____________ represent this effect." The study is published in the (16) ____________ "Science Advances".

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)  Most of us learn at school that warm air rises and ______
     a.  cool air sinks
     b.  cool air stinks
     c.  cool air slinks
     d.  cool air shrinks
2)  This has always appeared to be a fundamental ______
     a.  principle of science
     b.  principal of science
     c.  prince apple of science
     d.  principlalty of science
3)  Researchers discovered that ______
     a.  in tropic atmospheres
     b.  in topical atmospheres
     c.  in trippy call atmospheres
     d.  in trope call atmospheres
4)  in warmer and more humid climates, water particles ______
     a.  become more buoy aunt
     b.  become more boy aunt
     c.  become more boy ant
     d.  become more buoyant
5)  Without this lightness of water vapour, the climate warming would ______
     a.  be even worst
     b.  be even verse
     c.  be even worth
     d.  be even worse

6)  humid air is lighter than dry air at the same ______
     a.  temperatures and pressured
     b.  temperature and pressured
     c.  temperatures and pressure
     d.  temp raters and pressure
7)  It allows cooler air containing water ______
     a.  droplets to rise
     b.  droplets to arise
     c.  droplets to risen
     d.  droplets to riser
8)  more research is needed to find out the effects ______ has
     a.  rising cool lair
     b.  rising coo lair
     c.  rising cool ear
     d.  rising cool air
9)  Now that we understand how the lightness of water ______
     a.  deregulates tropical climate
     b.  aggregates tropical climate
     c.  surrogates tropical climate
     d.  regulates tropical climate
10)  we plan to study whether global climate models accurately ______
     a.  represent this reflect
     b.  represent this effect
     c.  represent this affect
     d.  represent this confect

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

Most of us learn at school that warm air (1) ___________________ air sinks. This has always appeared to be a fundamental (2) ___________________. However, a study from the University of California, Davis found that there are circumstances in which cool air rises. Researchers discovered that in tropical atmospheres, cold air rises because of the (3) __________________ vapour. Apparently, in warmer and more humid climates, water particles become (4) ___________________ can help cooler air rise. Lead researcher Dr Da Yang said: "Water vapour has a buoyancy effect which helps release (5) ___________________ the atmosphere to space and reduce the degree of warming. Without this lightness of water vapour, (6) __________________ would be even worse."

The scientists said humid (7) ___________________ than dry air at the same temperatures and pressure. This is called (8) ___________________ effect. It allows cooler air containing water (9) ___________________, which then forms clouds and thunderstorms. The resulting rain has a cooling effect in tropical areas. Another researcher, Seth Seidel, said more research is needed to find (10) ___________________ rising cool air has on climate change, and on its impact on curbing the effects of global warming. Seth Seidel said: "Now that we understand how the lightness of water (11) ___________________, we plan to study whether global climate models accurately represent this effect." The study (12) ___________________ the journal "Science Advances".

Comprehension questions

  1. Where do most of us learn that warm air rises?
  2. In what kind of atmospheres does cool air rise?
  3. What becomes more buoyant in more humid climates?
  4. Who is Da Yang?
  5. What could be worse without the lightness of water vapour?
  6. What did scientists say was lighter than dry air?
  7. What does air with water droplets help to form?
  8. What did a researcher called Seth Seidel say was needed?
  9. What models did a researcher plan to study?
  10. What is the name of the study the article is published in?




Multiple choice quiz

1) Where do most of us learn that warm air rises?
a) on the Internet
b) in the bathroom
c) in nature
d) at school
2) In what kind of atmospheres does cool air rise?
a) bad atmospheres
b) tropical atmospheres
c) space atmospheres
d) hemispheres
3) What becomes more buoyant in more humid climates?
a) heat
b) oxygen
c) water particles
d) rain
4) Who is Da Yang?
a) a lead researcher
b) a journalist
c) a publisher
d) a student
5) What could be worse without the lightness of water vapour?
a) flooding
b) typhoons
c) climate warming
d) floods

6) What did scientists say was lighter than dry air?
a) oxygen
b) humid air
c) CO2
d) pollution
7) What does air with water droplets help to form?
a) waterfalls
b) hurricanes
c) flooding
d) clouds and thunderstorms
8) What did a researcher called Seth Seidel say was needed?
a) more research
b) more rain
c) more money
d) less pollution
9) What models did a researcher plan to study?
a) geothermal science models
b) rain pattern models
c) global climate models
d) toy models
10) What is the name of the study the article is published in?
a) Climate Changes
b) Science Advances
c) Water Advances
d) Clouds and Thunderstorms

Role play

Role  A – Science
You think science is the best subject to study at school. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their subjects. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these (and why): literature, art or maths.

Role  B – Literature
You think literature is the best subject to study at school. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their subjects. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these (and why): science, art or maths.

Role  C – Art
You think art is the best subject to study at school. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their subjects. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these (and why): literature, science or maths.

Role  D – Maths
You think maths is the best subject to study at school. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their subjects. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these (and why): literature, art or science.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'cold'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'air'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • learn
    • principle
    • discovered
    • lead
    • release
    • worse
    • dry
    • allows
    • resulting
    • curbing
    • whether
    • published




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - Cold Air

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'cold'?
    3. What do you think of cold air?
    4. What did you learn about air at school?
    5. What did you think of science at school?
    6. What do you know about tropical areas?
    7. What are the good and bad things about the tropics?
    8. What do you think of humidity?
    9. What kind of weather do you love?
    10. What do you know about global warming?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'air'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. What is your favourite outside temperature and why?
    5. What do you think the vapour buoyancy effect is?
    6. What do you think of thunderstorms?
    7. How could we curb the effects of global warming?
    8. How much do you like science?
    9. What would it be like to be a scientist?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the researchers?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    Most of us learn at school that warm air rises and cool air sinks. This has always appeared to be a fundamental (1) ____ of science. However, a study from the University of California, Davis found that there are circumstances (2) ____ which cool air rises. Researchers discovered that in tropical atmospheres, cold air rises because of the (3) ____ of water vapour. Apparently, in warmer and more humid climates, water (4) ____ become more buoyant and can help cooler air rise. Lead researcher Dr Da Yang said: "Water vapour has a buoyancy effect which helps        (5) ____ the heat of the atmosphere to space and reduce the degree of warming. Without this lightness of water vapour, the climate warming would be (6) ____ worse."

    The scientists said humid air is lighter than (7) ____ air at the same temperatures and pressure. This is called the vapour buoyancy effect. It allows cooler air containing water droplets to rise, which then (8) ____ clouds and thunderstorms. The resulting rain has a cooling effect in tropical areas. Another researcher, Seth Seidel, said more research is needed to find out the effects rising cool air has on climate change, and on its impact on (9) ____ the effects of global warming. Seth Seidel said: "Now that we understand how the lightness of water (10) ____ tropical climate, we plan to study (11) ____ global climate models accurately represent this effect." The study is published in the (12) ____ "Science Advances".

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     principal     (b)     principality     (c)     principle     (d)     principles    
    2. (a)     in     (b)     as     (c)     though     (d)     much    
    3. (a)     lightness     (b)     weighty     (c)     float     (d)     buoyant    
    4. (a)     particles     (b)     particulars     (c)     partitions     (d)     parts    
    5. (a)     freedom     (b)     release     (c)     jettison     (d)     propel    
    6. (a)     ever     (b)     event     (c)     every     (d)     even    
    7. (a)     fried     (b)     levelled     (c)     dry     (d)     toxicity    
    8. (a)     ups     (b)     adds     (c)     bakes     (d)     forms    
    9. (a)     curbing     (b)     craving     (c)     curving     (d)     cubing    
    10. (a)     deregulates     (b)     regulates     (c)     irrigates     (d)     radiates    
    11. (a)     whither     (b)     whether     (c)     whiter     (d)     whatever    
    12. (a)     manual     (b)     précis     (c)     journal     (d)     white paper

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. a fundamental ripnipcel of science
    2. there are acusscemrtcni
    3. in tropical eoephssrmat
    4. water particles become more notaybu
    5. reduce the geeedr of warming
    6. Without this lightness of water opuavr

    Paragraph 2

    1. hdimu air is lighter
    2. at the same temperatures and esrrspue
    3. water strledop
    4. ngbicur the effects of global warming
    5. water teugersal tropical climate
    6. published in the anjrlou "Science Advances"

    Put the text back together

    (...)  on curbing the effects of global warming. Seth Seidel said: "Now that we understand how the lightness of water regulates tropical
    (...)  effect which helps release the heat of the atmosphere to space and reduce the degree
    (...)  effect. It allows cooler air containing water droplets to rise, which then forms clouds and thunderstorms. The resulting rain has
    (...)  rises because of the lightness of water vapour. Apparently, in warmer and more humid climates, water
    (...)  The scientists said humid air is lighter than dry air at the same temperatures and pressure. This is called the vapour buoyancy
    1  ) Most of us learn at school that warm air rises and cool air sinks. This has always appeared to be a fundamental
    (...)  this effect." The study is published in the journal "Science Advances".
    (...)  climate, we plan to study whether global climate models accurately represent
    (...)  of warming. Without this lightness of water vapour, the climate warming would be even worse."
    (...)  a cooling effect in tropical areas. Another researcher, Seth Seidel, said more research is needed to
    (...)  particles become more buoyant and can help cooler air rise. Lead researcher Dr Da Yang said: "Water vapour has a buoyancy
    (...)  find out the effects rising cool air has on climate change, and on its impact
    (...)  principle of science. However, a study from the University of California, Davis found that there are
    (...)  circumstances in which cool air rises. Researchers discovered that in tropical atmospheres, cold

    Put the words in the right order

    1. that   We   rises   .   learn   air   warm   at   school
    2. in   which   rises   .   are   circumstances   air   cool   There
    3. water   .   because   rises   lightness   of   Air   of   the
    4. atmosphere   the   Release   space   .   heat   to   the   of
    5. climate   be   The   even   would   worse   .   warming
    6. than   dry   Humid   lighter   air   .   air   is
    7. the   buoyancy   effect   .   vapour   called   is   This
    8. has   in   cooling   effect   a   tropical   Rain   areas   .
    9. air   Find   has   .   cool   the   effects   out   rising
    10. models   climate   effect   .   Global   represent   this   accurately

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    Most of us learn / academic at school that warm air rises and cool air sinks. This has always seemingly / appeared to be a fundamental principle of science. However, a studious / study from the University of California, Davis found that there are circumstances in / on which cool air rises. Researchers discovered that in tropics / tropical atmospheres, cold air rises because of the lightness of water wiper / vapour. Apparently, in warmer and more humid climates, water particles become more buoyant / floating and can help cooler air rise. Lead researcher Dr Da Yang said: "Water vapour has a buoyancy reflect / effect which helps release the heat of the atmosphere to space and reduce the degree / agree of warming. Without this lightness of water vapour, the climate warming would be even worst / worse."

    The scientists said humid / humidity air is lighter than dry air at the same temperatures and pressure. This is called the vapour buoyancy affect / effect. It allows cooler air contents / containing water droplets to rise, which then forms clouds and thunderstorms / thundery. The resulting rain has a cooling effect in tropical areas. Another researcher, Seth Seidel, said more research is needed to find out the effects rising cool air have / has on climate change, and on its impact on craving / curbing the effects of global warming. Seth Seidel said: "Now that we understand how the lightness of water regulates / waters tropical climate, we plan to study weather / whether global climate models accurately system / represent this effect." The study is published in the journal / journey "Science Advances".

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    M_s t _f _s l__ r n _t s c h__ l t h_t w_r m __ r r_s_s _n d c__ l __ r s_n k s . T h_s h_s _l w_y s _p p__ r_d t_ b_ _ f_n d_m_n t_l p r_n c_p l_ _f s c__ n c_. H_w_v_r , _ s t_d y f r_m t h_ U n_v_r s_t y _f C_l_f_r n__ , D_v_s f__ n d t h_t t h_r_ _r_ c_r c_m s t_n c_s _n w h_c h c__ l __ r r_s_s . R_s__ r c h_r s d_s c_v_r_d t h_t _n t r_p_c_l _t m_s p h_r_s , c_l d __ r r_s_s b_c__ s_ _f t h_ l_g h t n_s s _f w_t_r v_p_ _ r . A p p_r_n t l y , _n w_r m_r _n d m_r_ h_m_d c l_m_t_s , w_t_r p_r t_c l_s b_c_m_ m_r_ b__ y_n t _n d c_n h_l p c__ l_r __ r r_s_. L__ d r_s__ r c h_r D r D_ Y_n g s__ d : " W_t_r v_p_ _ r h_s _ b__ y_n c y _f f_c t w h_c h h_l p s r_l__ s_ t h_ h__ t _f t h_ _t m_s p h_r_ t_ s p_c_ _n d r_d_c_ t h_ d_g r__ _f w_r m_n g . W_t h__ t t h_s l_g h t n_s s _f w_t_r v_p_ _ r , t h_ c l_m_t_ w_r m_n g w__ l d b_ _v_n w_r s_. "

    T h_ s c__ n t_s t s s__ d h_m_d __ r _s l_g h t_r t h_n d r y __ r _t t h_ s_m_ t_m p_r_t_r_s _n d p r_s s_r_. T h_s _s c_l l_d t h_ v_p_ _ r b__ y_n c y _f f_c t . I t _l l_w s c__ l_r __ r c_n t__ n_n g w_t_r d r_p l_t s t_ r_s_, w h_c h t h_n f_r m s c l__ d s _n d t h_n d_r s t_r m s . T h_ r_s_l t_n g r__ n h_s _ c__ l_n g _f f_c t _n t r_p_c_l _r__ s . A n_t h_r r_s__ r c h_r , S_t h S__ d_l , s__ d m_r_ r_s__ r c h _s n__ d_d t_ f_n d __ t t h_ _f f_c t s r_s_n g c__ l __ r h_s _n c l_m_t_ c h_n g_, _n d _n _t s _m p_c t _n c_r b_n g t h_ _f f_c t s _f g l_b_l w_r m_n g . S_t h S__ d_l s__ d : " N_w t h_t w_ _n d_r s t_n d h_w t h_ l_g h t n_s s _f w_t_r r_g_l_t_s t r_p_c_l c l_m_t_, w_ p l_n t_ s t_d y w h_t h_r g l_b_l c l_m_t_ m_d_l s _c c_r_t_l y r_p r_s_n t t h_s _f f_c t . " T h_ s t_d y _s p_b l_s h_d _n t h_ j__ r n_l " S c__ n c_ A d v_n c_s " .

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    most of us learn at school that warm air rises and cool air sinks this has always appeared to be a fundamental principle of science however a study from the university of california davis found that there are circumstances in which cool air rises researchers discovered that in tropical atmospheres cold air rises because of the lightness of water vapour apparently in warmer and more humid climates water particles become more buoyant and can help cooler air rise lead researcher dr da yang said water vapour has a buoyancy effect which helps release the heat of the atmosphere to space and reduce the degree of warming without this lightness of water vapour the climate warming would be even worse

    the scientists said humid air is lighter than dry air at the same temperatures and pressure this is called the vapour buoyancy effect it allows cooler air containing water droplets to rise which then forms clouds and thunderstorms the resulting rain has a cooling effect in tropical areas another researcher seth seidel said more research is needed to find out the effects rising cool air has on climate change and on its impact on curbing the effects of global warming seth seidel said now that we understand how the lightness of water regulates tropical climate we plan to study whether global climate models accurately represent this effect the study is published in the journal science advances

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    Mostofuslearnatschoolthatwarmairrisesandcoolairsinks.Thishasalw
    aysappearedtobeafundamentalprincipleofscience.However,astudyf
    romtheUniversityofCalifornia,Davisfoundthattherearecircumstance
    sinwhichcoolairrises.Researchersdiscoveredthatintropicalatmosph
    eres,coldairrisesbecauseofthelightnessofwatervapour.Apparently,i
    nwarmerandmorehumidclimates,waterparticlesbecomemorebuoya
    ntandcanhelpcoolerairrise.LeadresearcherDrDaYangsaid:"Waterva
    pourhasabuoyancyeffectwhichhelpsreleasetheheatoftheatmospher
    etospaceandreducethedegreeofwarming.Withoutthislightnessofwa
    tervapour,theclimatewarmingwouldbeevenworse."Thescientistssai
    dhumidairislighterthandryairatthesametemperaturesandpressure.
    Thisiscalledthevapourbuoyancyeffect.Itallowscooleraircontainingw
    aterdropletstorise,whichthenformscloudsandthunderstorms.There
    sultingrainhasacoolingeffectintropicalareas.Anotherresearcher,Set
    hSeidel,saidmoreresearchisneededtofindouttheeffectsrisingcoolair
    hasonclimatechange,andonitsimpactoncurbingtheeffectsofglobalw
    arming.SethSeidelsaid:"Nowthatweunderstandhowthelightnessofw
    aterregulatestropicalclimate,weplantostudywhetherglobalclimatem
    odelsaccuratelyrepresentthiseffect."Thestudyispublishedinthejourn
    al"ScienceAdvances".

    Free writing

    Write about cold air for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    Cold air is better than warm air. Discuss.

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. COLD AIR: Make a poster about cold air. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. GLOBAL WARMING: Write a magazine article about creating more cold air to help reduce global warming. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on cold air. Ask him/her three questions about cold air. Give him/her three of your ideas. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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