The Reading / Listening - Clean Air - Level 6

Scientists have discovered what they believe to be the cleanest air on Earth. Researchers from Colorado State University and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology conducted research on the purity of the air above Antarctica. They found a region over the Southern Ocean, between the south of Australia and Antarctica, that was "unaffected" by human activity. The scientists said the area they researched formed the atmosphere in the lower clouds. The analysis of the air showed that it was totally free from "anthropogenic aerosols". These are pollutants or particles derived from human activity, or dust from other continents. The scientists called this pollution-free area, "truly pristine".



The scientists analysed the structure of airborne microbes in the lower clouds over the Southern Ocean. They looked at the DNA of the microbes and tracked where they came from. Their analysis included monitoring wind trajectories to detect how far the microbes may have travelled. They found that the atmospheric eco-system was very much "isolated," self-contained, and free from contaminants from elsewhere in the world. The source of the microbes was the Southern Ocean, rather than airborne pollutants from other continents. The researchers concluded that the Southern Ocean is one of very few places on Earth that has been "minimally affected by anthropogenic activities".

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Clean Air - Level 4  or  Clean Air - Level 5

Sources
  • https://www.newsweek.com/air-antarctica-cleanest-world-1508433
  • https://www.ecowatch.com/cleanest-air-earth-scientists-2646150814.html
  • https://scitechdaily.com/cleanest-air-on-earth-identified-by-atmospheric-scientists-in-first-of-its-kind-study/


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. CLEAN AIR: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about clean air. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       discover / clean air / purity / region / atmosphere / clouds / pollutants / pristine /
       structure / microbes / analysis / eco-system / microbes / continent / Antarctica
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. HEAVY FINES: Students A strongly believe we should give heavy fines to factories that create pollution; Students B strongly believe we shouldn't.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. CLEAN: How important is it for these things to be clean? How can we make them cleaner? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

Importance

How To Make Them Cleaner

Air

 

 

Oceans

 

 

Roads

 

 

Rivers

 

 

Cities

 

 

Public buildings

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. EARTH: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "Earth". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. POLLUTION: Rank these with your partner. Put the most dangerous forms of pollution at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • Water pollution
  • Plastic pollution
  • Air pollution
  • Radioactive contamination
  • Noise pollution
  • Light pollution
  • Visual pollution
  • Littering

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. discovered a. Found or observed a place, substance, or scientific happening or phenomenon.
      2. conducted b. A tiny, tiny portion of a physical substance.
      3. region c. Organized and carried out.
      4. unaffected d. The layer of gases surrounding the earth or another planet.
      5. atmosphere e. An area of a country or the world having easy-to-understand characteristics, but not always with borders or fixed boundaries.
      6. particle f. Not impacted by.
      7. pristine g. In its original condition; unspoiled.

    Paragraph 2

      8. airborne h. Far away from other places, buildings, or people; remote.
      9. microbe i. Discover or identify the presence or existence of something.
      10. trajectory j. In the air; travelling in the air.
      11. detect k. Any of the world's main continuous areas of land (Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America).
      12. isolated l. A micro-organism, especially a bacteria causing disease.
      13. continent m. To an extremely small extent; negligibly.
      14. minimally n. The path or direction followed by something flying or an object moving somewhere.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. Researchers found the world's cleanest air in Colorado's mountains.     T / F
  2. Researchers found an area that was not affected by human activity.     T / F
  3. The area the researchers looked at was in the lower clouds.     T / F
  4. Researchers said the area they monitored was pristine.     T / F
  5. The scientists analysed the DNA of microbes in the air.     T / F
  6. The scientists said the area under study was not an isolated eco-system. T / F
  7. The air the scientists studied had microbes from nearby continents.     T / F
  8. The Southern Ocean is the only place on Earth unaffected by aerosols.     T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. discovered
  2. conducted
  3. region
  4. showed
  5. pristine
  6. airborne
  7. trajectories
  8. isolated
  9. source
  10. few
  1. unspoiled
  2. revealed
  3. remote
  4. carried out
  5. paths
  6. scant
  7. found
  8. origin
  9. area
  10. in flight

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. discovered what they believe to be
  2. conducted research on the purity
  3. the atmosphere in
  4. pollutants or particles derived
  5. scientists called this pollution-free area
  6. scientists analysed the structure of
  7. They looked at the
  8. wind
  9. contaminants
  10. one of very few
  1. airborne microbes
  2. from human activity
  3. from elsewhere
  4. of the air
  5. the cleanest air
  6. trajectories
  7. the lower clouds
  8. places on Earth
  9. "truly pristine"
  10. DNA of the microbes

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
unaffected
conducted
analysis
pristine
region
pollutants
cleanest
atmosphere

Scientists have discovered what they believe to be the (1) ____________ air on Earth. Researchers from Colorado State University and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (2) ____________ research on the purity of the air above Antarctica. They found a (3) ____________ over the Southern Ocean, between the south of Australia and Antarctica, that was "(4) ____________ " by human activity. The scientists said the area they researched formed the (5) ____________ in the lower clouds. The (6) ____________ of the air showed that it was totally free from "anthropogenic aerosols". These are (7) ____________ or particles derived from human activity, or dust from other continents. The scientists called this pollution-free area, "truly (8) ____________".

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
isolated
continents
tracked
minimally
detect
few
airborne
elsewhere

The scientists analysed the structure of (9) ____________ microbes in the lower clouds over the Southern Ocean. They looked at the DNA of the microbes and (10) ____________ where they came from. Their analysis included monitoring wind trajectories to (11) ____________ how far the microbes may have travelled. They found that the atmospheric eco-system was very much "(12) ____________," self-contained, and free from contaminants from (13) ____________ in the world. The source of the microbes was the Southern Ocean, rather than airborne pollutants from other (14) ____________. The researchers concluded that the Southern Ocean is one of very (15) ____________ places on Earth that has been "(16) ____________ affected by anthropogenic activities".

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)  Scientists have discovered what they believe to be the ______ Earth
     a.  cleanest air on
     b.  cleanest air in
     c.  cleanest air by
     d.  cleanest air at
2) between the south of Australia and Antarctica, that was "unaffected" ______
     a.  by humane activity
     b.  by human activity
     c.  by humanly activity
     d.  by humans activity
3)  The scientists said the area they researched formed the atmosphere in ______
     a.  the low are clouds
     b.  the lower cloudy
     c.  them lower clouds
     d.  the lower clouds
4)  These are pollutants or particles _______ activity
     a.  derived from human
     b.  delivered from human
     c.  delved from human
     d.  derived from human
5)  The scientists called this pollution-free area, "______"
     a.  true pre teens
     b.  truly pre-steam
     c.  truly pristine
     d.  truly pre-stem

6)  The scientists analysed the structure of ______
     a.  airborne micro bees
     b.  airborne microbes
     c.  air born my crabs
     d.  air born mic robes
7)  They looked at the DNA of the microbes and ______ came from
     a.  tracked where they
     b.  track it where they
     c.  trucked where they
     d.  truck it where they
8)  They found that the atmospheric eco-system was very much ______ ...
     a.  "isolated," self-contained
     b.  "isolate it," self-contained
     c.  "I so late," it self-contained
     d.  "isolated," self-contained
9)  The source of the microbes was the Southern Ocean, rather ______
     a.  than airborne polluted ants
     b.  than airborne pollute ants
     c.  than airborne poll mutants
     d.  than airborne pollutants
10)  one of very few places on Earth that has ______
     a.  been "minimally affected"
     b.  been "minimally reflected"
     c.  been "minimally dissected"
     d.  been "minimally infected"

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

Scientists have discovered what they believe to (1) ___________________ air on Earth. Researchers from Colorado State University and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology conducted research (2) ___________________ of the air above Antarctica. They (3) ___________________ over the Southern Ocean, between the south of Australia and Antarctica, that was "unaffected" (4) ___________________. The scientists said the area they researched formed the atmosphere in the lower clouds. The analysis of the air showed that it was totally free from "anthropogenic aerosols". These are (5) ___________________ derived from human activity, or dust from other continents. The scientists called this pollution-free (6) ___________________.

The scientists analysed (7) ___________________ airborne microbes in the lower clouds over the Southern Ocean. They looked at the DNA of the (8) ___________________ where they came from. Their analysis included monitoring wind trajectories to (9) ___________________ the microbes may have travelled. They found that the atmospheric eco-system was very much "isolated," self-contained, and free from contaminants (10) ___________________ the world. The source of the microbes was the Southern Ocean, rather than airborne pollutants (11) ___________________. The researchers concluded that the Southern Ocean is one of very few places on Earth that has been "(12) ___________________ anthropogenic activities".

Comprehension questions

  1. Which country's meteorology bureau took part in the research?
  2. In which area of the world did researchers study air purity?
  3. Where was the area scientists researched in relation to Australia?
  4. What anthropogenic things was the air free from?
  5. What was the air free from besides pollutants and particles?
  6. What airborne things did scientists examine the DNA of?
  7. What did the scientists analyse the trajectory of?
  8. What did the scientists say the source of the microbes was?
  9. Where had microbes in the Southern Ocean not come from?
  10. Where did scientists say had been minimally affected by anthropogenes?




Multiple choice quiz

1) Which country's meteorology bureau took part in the research?
a) Canada's
b) Argentina's
c) Australia's
d) India's
2) In which area of the world did researchers study air purity?
a) Antarctica
b) Siberia
c) Greenland
d) the Arctic
3) Where was the area scientists researched in relation to Australia?
a) north by northwest
b) behind Australia
c) north by northeast
d) it was south of Australia
4) What anthropogenic things was the air free from?
a) bugs
b) aerosols
c) birds
d) airplanes
5) What was the air free from besides pollutants and particles?
a) ice
b) pollen
c) dust
d) smoke

6) What airborne things did scientists examine the DNA of?
a) airplanes
b) microbes
c) birds
d) flying fish
7) What did the scientists analyse the trajectory of?
a) an airborne insect
b) the sun's rays
c) climate change
d) wind
8) What did the scientists say the source of the microbes was?
a) plankton
b) the Southern Ocean
c) photosynthesis
d) climate change
9) Where did scientists say microbes had not come from?
a) other continents
b) space
c) the seabed
d) a lab

10) Where did scientists say had been minimally affected by anthropogenes?
a) the upper atmosphere
b) the seabed
c) The Pacific Ocean
d) the Southern Ocean

Role play

Role  A – Water Pollution
You think water pollution is the worst form of pollution. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their forms of pollution aren't as bad. Also, tell the others which is the least damaging of these (and why): plastic pollution, noise pollution or light pollution.

Role  B – Plastic Pollution
You think plastic pollution is the worst form of pollution. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their forms of pollution aren't as bad. Also, tell the others which is the least damaging of these (and why): water pollution, noise pollution or light pollution.

Role  C – Noise Pollution
You think noise pollution is the worst form of pollution. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their forms of pollution aren't as bad. Also, tell the others which is the least damaging of these (and why): plastic pollution, water pollution or light pollution.

Role  D – Light Pollution
You think light pollution is the worst form of pollution. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their forms of pollution aren't as bad. Also, tell the others which is the least damaging of these (and why): plastic pollution, noise pollution or water pollution.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'clean'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'air'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • believe
    • purity
    • region
    • formed
    • dust
    • truly
    • structure
    • DNA
    • wind
    • free
    • source
    • few




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - Clean Air

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'clean'?
    3. How clean is the air where you live?
    4. How important is it for you to have perfectly clean air?
    5. How do you feel when the air is polluted?
    6. To what degree is 100% pure air a human right?
    7. What do you think of factories that create pollution?
    8. What activities do you do that creates pollution?
    9. Would you pay for clean air?
    10. Would you move to Antarctica to be able to breathe pure air?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'air'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. What do you know about clouds?
    5. What would you advise your government regarding clean air?
    6. What do you think is contained in the DNA of air?
    7. What collocations do you know for the word 'air'?
    8. What damage have humans done to the air?
    9. What will our air be like in 50 years from now?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the scientists?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    Scientists have discovered what they (1) ____ to be the cleanest air on Earth. Researchers from Colorado State University and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology conducted research on the (2) ____ of the air above Antarctica. They found a region over the Southern Ocean, between the south of Australia and Antarctica, that was "unaffected" (3) ____ human activity. The scientists said the area they researched (4) ____ the atmosphere in the lower clouds. The analysis of the air showed that it was (5) ____ free from "anthropogenic aerosols". These are pollutants or particles derived from human activity, or dust from other continents. The scientists called this pollution-free area, "truly (6) ____".

    The scientists analysed the (7) ____ of airborne microbes in the lower clouds over the Southern Ocean. They looked at the DNA of the microbes and (8) ____ where they came from. Their analysis included monitoring wind trajectories to (9) ____ how far the microbes may have travelled. They found that the atmospheric eco-system was very much "isolated," self-contained, and free from contaminants from (10) ____ in the world. The source of the microbes was the Southern Ocean, rather than airborne pollutants from other continents. The researchers (11) ____ that the Southern Ocean is one of very few places on Earth that has been "(12) ____ affected by anthropogenic activities".

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     believe     (b)     belief     (c)     believer     (d)     believing    
    2. (a)     parity     (b)     paucity     (c)     purity     (d)     particle    
    3. (a)     at     (b)     on     (c)     by     (d)     of    
    4. (a)     foamed     (b)     framed     (c)     famed     (d)     formed    
    5. (a)     total     (b)     totality     (c)     totally     (d)     totals    
    6. (a)     pasted     (b)     pristine     (c)     parting     (d)     praised    
    7. (a)     stricture     (b)     structure     (c)     stature     (d)     statue    
    8. (a)     tricked     (b)     tracked     (c)     trickled     (d)     trekked    
    9. (a)     detract     (b)     inject     (c)     detect     (d)     defect    
    10. (a)     else     (b)     whenever     (c)     where     (d)     elsewhere    
    11. (a)     precluded     (b)     secluded     (c)     included     (d)     concluded    
    12. (a)     maxim     (b)     minimum     (c)     minimal     (d)     minimally

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. research on the ytrupi of the air
    2. a rngoie over the Southern Ocean
    3. ctfdafnuee by human activity
    4. the atorpmhese in the lower clouds
    5. parisclte derived from human activity
    6. scientists called this pollution-free area, "truly irntsepi"

    Paragraph 2

    1. The scientists analysed the ttceurrus
    2. airborne eibmcsro
    3. free from oaimcatnsntn
    4. from other cenntotsin
    5. The researchers docdelucn that
    6. liymilamn affected by anthropogenic activities

    Put the text back together

    (...)  Ocean. They looked at the DNA of the microbes and tracked where they came from. Their analysis included
    (...)  The scientists analysed the structure of airborne microbes in the lower clouds over the Southern
    (...)  system was very much "isolated," self-contained, and free from contaminants from elsewhere
    (...)  than airborne pollutants from other continents. The researchers concluded that the Southern Ocean is one
    (...)  atmosphere in the lower clouds. The analysis of the air showed that it was totally
    (...)  dust from other continents. The scientists called this pollution-free area, "truly pristine".
    (...)  monitoring wind trajectories to detect how far the microbes may have travelled. They found that the atmospheric eco-
    1  ) Scientists have discovered what they believe to be the cleanest air on Earth. Researchers from
    (...)  free from "anthropogenic aerosols". These are pollutants or particles derived from human activity, or
    (...)  and Antarctica, that was "unaffected" by human activity. The scientists said the area they researched formed the
    (...)  purity of the air above Antarctica. They found a region over the Southern Ocean, between the south of Australia
    (...)  Colorado State University and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology conducted research on the
    (...)  of very few places on Earth that has been minimally affected by anthropogenic activities."
    (...)  in the world. The source of the microbes was the Southern Ocean, rather

    Put the words in the right order

    1. believe   to   Discovered   they   be   the   what   cleanest   .
    2. Conducted   on   research   the   the   purity   air   .   of
    3. found   a   region   the   They   Ocean   .   Southern   over
    4. area   they   atmosphere   .   The   the   formed   researched
    5. pollution-free   this   The   truly   area   pristine   .   scientists   called
    6. structure   microbes   .   analysed   airborne   of   The   the   scientists
    7. the   microbes   .   at   They   the   DNA   looked   of
    8. travelled   .   may   far   the   Detect   how   microbes   have
    9. in   from   Free   world   .   from   elsewhere   the   contaminants
    10. the   few   on   of   very   places   Earth   .   One

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    Scientists have discovered what they belief / believe to be the cleanest air on Earth. Researchers from Colorado State University and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology conduction / conducted research on the purity of the air above / higher Antarctica. They found a legion / region over the Southern Ocean, between the southern / south of Australia and Antarctica, that was "unaffected" by human active / activity. The scientists said the area they researched formed the atmosphere in the lower clouds. The analysis / analysts of the air showed that it was totally free / freedom from "anthropogenic aerosols". These are pollutants or particles drive / derived from human activity, or dust / dusty from other continents. The scientists called this pollution-free area, "truly pristine".

    The scientists analysed the map / structure of airborne microbes in the lower clouds over the Southern Ocean. They looked by / at the DNA of the microbes and tracked where / when they came from. Their analysis included monitoring wind tragedies / trajectories to detect how far the microbes may have travelled. They found that the atmospheric eco-system was very many / much "isolated," self-contained, and free from contaminants from elsewhere in the / a world. The source of the microbes was the Southern Ocean, rather than airborne / born pollutants from other continents. The researchers findings / concluded that the Southern Ocean is one / once of very few places on Earth that has been "minimally / maximum affected by anthropogenic activities".

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    S c__ n t_s t s h_v_ d_s c_v_r_d w h_t t h_y b_l__ v_ t_ b_ t h_ c l__ n_s t __ r _n E_r t h . R_s__ r c h_r s f r_m C_l_r_d_ S t_t_ U n_v_r s_t y _n d t h_ A_s t r_l__ n B_r___ _f M_t__ r_l_g y c_n d_c t_d r_s__ r c h _n t h_ p_r_t y _f t h_ __ r _b_v_ A n t_r c t_c_. T h_y f__ n d _ r_g__ n _v_r t h_ S__ t h_r n O c__ n , b_t w__ n t h_ s__ t h _f A_s t r_l__ _n d A n t_r c t_c_, t h_t w_s "_n_f f_c t_d " b y h_m_n _c t_v_t y . T h_ s c__ n t_s t s s__ d t h_ _r__ t h_y r_s__ r c h_d f_r m_d t h_ _t m_s p h_r_ _n t h_ l_w_r c l__ d s . T h_ _n_l y s_s _f t h_ __ r s h_w_d t h_t _t w_s t_t_l l y f r__ f r_m "_n t h r_p_g_n_c __ r_s_l s " . T h_s_ _r_ p_l l_t_n t s _r p_r t_c l_s d_r_v_d f r_m h_m_n _c t_v_t y , _r d_s t f r_m _t h_r c_n t_n_n t s . T h_ s c__ n t_s t s c_l l_d t h_s p_l l_t__ n - f r__ _r__ , " t r_l y p r_s t_n_" .

    T h_ s c__ n t_s t s _n_l y s_d t h_ s t r_c t_r_ _f __ r b_r n_ m_c r_b_s _n t h_ l_w_r c l__ d s _v_r t h_ S__ t h_r n O c__ n . T h_y l__ k_d _t t h_ D N A _f t h_ m_c r_b_s _n d t r_c k_d w h_r_ t h_y c_m_ f r_m . T h__ r _n_l y s_s _n c l_d_d m_n_t_r_n g w_n d t r_j_c t_r__ s t_ d_t_c t h_w f_r t h_ m_c r_b_s m_y h_v_ t r_v_l l_d . T h_y f__ n d t h_t t h_ _t m_s p h_r_c _c_- s y s t_m w_s v_r y m_c h "_s_l_t_d , " s_l f - c_n t__ n_d , _n d f r__ f r_m c_n t_m_n_n t s f r_m _l s_w h_r_ _n t h_ w_r l d . T h_ s__ r c_ _f t h_ m_c r_b_s w_s t h_ S__ t h_r n O c__ n , r_t h_r t h_n __ r b_r n_ p_l l_t_n t s f r_m _t h_r c_n t_n_n t s . T h_ r_s__ r c h_r s c_n c l_d_d t h_t t h_ S__ t h_r n O c__ n _s _n_ _f v_r y f_w p l_c_s _n E_r t h t h_t h_s b__ n " m_n_m_l l y _f f_c t_d b y _n t h r_p_g_n_c _c t_v_t__ s " .

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    scientists have discovered what they believe to be the cleanest air on earth researchers from colorado state university and the australian bureau of meteorology conducted research on the purity of the air above antarctica they found a region over the southern ocean between the south of australia and antarctica that was unaffected by human activity the scientists said the area they researched formed the atmosphere in the lower clouds the analysis of the air showed that it was totally free from anthropogenic aerosols these are pollutants or particles derived from human activity or dust from other continents the scientists called this pollutionfree area truly pristine

    the scientists analysed the structure of airborne microbes in the lower clouds over the southern ocean they looked at the dna of the microbes and tracked where they came from their analysis included monitoring wind trajectories to detect how far the microbes may have travelled they found that the atmospheric ecosystem was very much isolated selfcontained and free from contaminants from elsewhere in the world the source of the microbes was the southern ocean rather than airborne pollutants from other continents the researchers concluded that the southern ocean is one of very few places on earth that has been minimally affected by anthropogenic activities

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    ScientistshavediscoveredwhattheybelievetobethecleanestaironEart
    h.ResearchersfromColoradoStateUniversityandtheAustralianBurea
    uofMeteorologyconductedresearchonthepurityoftheairaboveAntarc
    tica.TheyfoundaregionovertheSouthernOcean,betweenthesouthof
    AustraliaandAntarctica,thatwas"unaffected"byhumanactivity.Thes
    cientistssaidtheareatheyresearchedformedtheatmosphereinthelow
    erclouds.Theanalysisoftheairshowedthatitwastotallyfreefrom"anthr
    opogenicaerosols".Thesearepollutantsorparticlesderivedfromhuma
    nactivity,ordustfromothercontinents.Thescientistscalledthispollutio
    n-freearea,"trulypristine".Thescientistsanalysedthestructureofairb
    ornemicrobesinthelowercloudsovertheSouthernOcean.Theylooked
    attheDNAofthemicrobesandtrackedwheretheycamefrom.Theiranal
    ysisincludedmonitoringwindtrajectoriestodetecthowfarthemicrobes
    mayhavetravelled.Theyfoundthattheatmosphericeco-systemwasv
    erymuch"isolated,"self-contained,andfreefromcontaminantsfrome
    lsewhereintheworld.ThesourceofthemicrobeswastheSouthernOcea
    n,ratherthanairbornepollutantsfromothercontinents.Theresearcher
    sconcludedthattheSouthernOceanisoneofveryfewplacesonEarththa
    thasbeen"minimallyaffectedbyanthropogenicactivities".

    Free writing

    Write about clean air for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    It is impossible for the word to be pollution free. Discuss.

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. CLEAN AIR: Make a poster about clean air. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. POLLUTION: Write a magazine article about governments imposing huge taxes on companies to keep the air clean. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on clean air. Ask him/her three questions about it. Give him/her three of your ideas on how to make the air cleaner. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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