The Reading / Listening - Exam Results - Level 6

Hotter weather leads to lower exam results, according to a new study from Harvard University, the University of California and Georgia State University. What's more, hot weather may reduce learning in both the short term and long term. Researchers reported that hot weather on test days and higher than average temperatures throughout the school year resulted in poorer grades. The study is the first major research into the effect of heat on students in the USA. Researchers analyzed how test scores from 10 million American students were impacted by the weather. Their findings showed that an average temperature increase of just 0.55ºC over one year resulted in a one per cent decrease in learning.



The research is in a paper called "Heat and Learning" and was published last month by the USA's National Bureau of Economic Research. One of the more concerning conclusions contained in the study is that global warming may affect learning and the income-earning potential of students around the world. The researchers predicted that if global temperatures continued to rise, the average American student could lose $25,000 in income over their lifetime because of lower exam results. Using air conditioning in classrooms could circumvent this. The researchers also found that hotter weather was, "particularly damaging...for low income and minority students" across the USA.

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Exam Results - Level 4  or  Exam Results - Level 5

Sources
  • https://www.thenational.ae/uae/education/hot-weather-lowers-exam-results-study-shows-1.735280
  • http://www.bbc.com/news/business-44288982
  • http://www.nber.org/papers/w24639


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. EXAM RESULTS: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about exam results. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       hotter weather / exam results / long term / average / temperatures / students / heat /
       research / global warming / income / potential / lifetime / air conditioning / minority
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. HEAT: Students A strongly believe students should learn how to study in the heat; Students B strongly believe this is unnecessary.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. WEATHER: How does weather affect these things? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

30ºC+ Heat

Freezing Cold

Non-stop Rain

Warm Sunshine

Studying

 

 

 

 

Mood

 

 

 

 

Weekends

 

 

 

 

Hobbies

 

 

 

 

Shopping

 

 

 

 

Trips

 

 

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. TEST: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "test". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. EXAM RESULTS: Rank these with your partner. Put the things that help exam results most at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • preparation
  • practice-test papers
  • exercise
  • lucky charms
  • air conditioning
  • good teacher
  • hard work
  • sleep

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

1.

according to

a.

Important, serious, or significant.

2.

throughout

b.

Ordinary, standard, normal, typical...

3.

grades

c.

This is what other people said or wrote about.

4.

major

d.

A score that shows the quality of a student's work, essay, test, etc.

5.

effect

e.

In every part of.

6.

impacted

f.

A change that is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

7.

average

g.

Strongly affected or changed by something.

    Paragraph 2

8.

paper

h.

Print an essay, report, poem, etc. in a book or journal so as to make it generally known.

9.

published

i.

On the subject of or in connection with; about.

10.

concerning

j.

Overcome a problem or difficulty.

11.

conclusions

k.

An essay or report, especially one read at an academic lecture or seminar or published in an academic journal.

12.

potential

l.

A relatively small group of people, especially one commonly discriminated against because of race, religion, language, or political opinion.

13.

circumvent

m.

Having or showing the capacity to become or develop into something in the future.

14.

minority

n.

Judgments, opinions or decisions reached by thinking, research and reasoning.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. Three US universities took part in the new study into exam results.     T / F
  2. Hot weather can affect studying in the short and long term.     T / F
  3. Hot weather on test days had no impact on test scores.     T / F
  4. Researchers looked at the test results of ten million students in the US.   T / F
  5. The research paper was called "Heat and Exam Success".     T / F
  6. Global warming may affect students' later income when working.     T / F
  7. The use of air conditioning would not help students do better in exams.   T / F
  8. Hotter weather was particularly damaging for rich and poor students.     T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. leads to
  2. What's more
  3. throughout
  4. major
  5. decrease
  6. concerning
  7. predicted
  8. potential
  9. circumvent
  10. particularly
  1. for the whole of
  2. avoid
  3. reduction
  4. worrying
  5. big
  6. prospects
  7. results in
  8. especially
  9. forecast
  10. In addition

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. Hotter weather leads to lower exam results,
  2. higher than average
  3. the first major research into the effect
  4. American students were impacted
  5. an average temperature increase of just
  6. published last
  7. One of the more concerning conclusions
  8. affect learning and the income-earning
  9. lose $25,000 in income over
  10. particularly damaging for low income
  1. of heat on students
  2. and minority students
  3. 0.55ºC over one year
  4. contained in the study
  5. temperatures
  6. potential of students
  7. according to a new study
  8. their lifetime
  9. by the weather
  10. month

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
average
impacted
decrease
according
throughout
findings
more
effect

Hotter weather leads to lower exam results, (1) ____________ to a new study from Harvard University, the University of California and Georgia State University. What's (2) ____________, hot weather may reduce learning in both the short term and long term. Researchers reported that hot weather on test days and higher than (3) ____________ temperatures (4) ____________ the school year resulted in poorer grades. The study is the first major research into the (5) ____________ of heat on students in the USA. Researchers analyzed how test scores from 10 million American students were (6) ____________ by the weather. Their (7) ____________ showed that an average temperature increase of just 0.55ºC over one year resulted in a 1 per cent (8) ____________ in learning.

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
circumvent
concerning
predicted
minority
published
particularly
lifetime
potential

The research is in a paper called "Heat and Learning" and was (9) ____________ last month by the USA's National Bureau of Economic Research. One of the more (10) ____________ conclusions contained in the study is that global warming may affect learning and the income-earning (11) ____________ of students around the world. The researchers (12) ____________ that if global temperatures continued to rise, the average American student could lose $25,000 in income over their (13) ____________ because of lower exam results. Using air conditioning in classrooms could (14) ____________ this. The researchers also found that hotter weather was, "(15) ____________ damaging...for low income and (16) ____________ students" across the USA.

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)  Hotter weather leads to lower exam results, ______ new study
     a.  accordance to a
     b.  accorded to a
     c.  accordion to a
     d.  according to a
2)  What's more, hot weather may reduce learning in both the short term ______
     a.  and longing time
     b.  and longs term
     c.  and long term
     d.  and longs time
3)  higher than average temperatures ______ year
     a.  though out the school
     b.  thought out the school
     c.  throughout the school
     d.  thorough out the school
4) analyzed how test scores from 10 million American students were ______ weather
     a.  impacted by the
     b.  impact it by the
     c.  impact did by the
     d.  in pact it by the
5)  temperature increase of just 0.55ºC over one year ______ 1 per cent decrease
     a.  resulted at a
     b.  resulted to a
     c.  resulted on a
     d.  resulted in a

6) concerning conclusions contained in the study is that global warming ______
     a.  may affect learning
     b.  may effect learning
     c.  may infect learning
     d.  may reflect learning
7)  if global temperatures continued to rise, the average American ______
     a.  student could loose
     b.  student could lost
     c.  student could lose
     d.  student could loser
8)  lose $25,000 in income over their lifetime because of ______
     a.  lowered exam results
     b.  lower exam results
     c.  lowering exam results
     d.  lowers exam results
9)  Using air conditioning in classrooms could ______
     a.  circle vent this
     b.  circa vent this
     c.  circumvent this
     d.  circumstance this
10)  hotter weather was, "particularly damaging...for low income ______ students"
     a.  hand minority
     b.  band minority
     c.  end minority
     d.  and minority

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

Hotter weather (1) ___________________ exam results, according to a new study from Harvard University, the University of California and Georgia State University. What's more, hot weather (2) ___________________ in both the short term and long term. Researchers reported that hot weather on test days (3) ___________________ average temperatures throughout the school year resulted in poorer grades. The study is (4) ___________________ research into the effect of heat on students in the USA. Researchers analyzed how (5) ___________________ 10 million American students were impacted by the weather. Their findings showed that an average temperature increase of just 0.55ºC over one (6) ___________________ a 1 per cent decrease in learning.

The research is in (7) ___________________ "Heat and Learning" and was published last month by the USA's National Bureau of Economic Research. One of the more concerning conclusions contained (8) ___________________ is that global warming may affect learning and the income-earning potential of students around the world. The researchers (9) ___________________ global temperatures continued to rise, the average American student could lose $25,000 in income (10) ___________________ because of lower exam results. Using air conditioning in classrooms could circumvent this. The researchers also found (11) ___________________ was, "particularly damaging...for low income (12) ___________________" across the USA.

Comprehension questions

  1. How many universities took part in the research?
  2. What kind of temperatures during the school year affected exam results?
  3. What did researchers study the effect of on students?
  4. How many students' test scores did the researchers look at?
  5. How much of a temperature rise caused a 1% decrease in learning?
  6. What is the name of the research paper?
  7. What other thing did the researchers say global warming might affect?
  8. How much money could the average American student lose?
  9. What could help avoid falling exam scores?
  10. Who is hotter weather particularly damaging for?




Multiple choice quiz

1)  How many universities took part in the research?
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 5
2)  What kind of temperatures during the school year affected exam results?
a) varying
b) boiling
c) extreme
d) higher than average
3) What did researchers study the effect of on students?
a) heat
b) lack of sleep
c) UV-rays
d) stress
4) How many students' test scores did the researchers look at?
a) 100,000,000
b) 100,000
c) 10,000,000
d) 1,000,000
5) How much of a temperature rise caused a 1% decrease in learning?
a) 0.45ºC
b) 0.55ºC
c) 0.85ºC
d) 0.35ºC

6) What is the name of the research paper?
a) Heat and Learning
b) Heat and Stress
c) Heat and Exams
d) Heat and Performance
7) What other thing did the researchers say global warming might affect?
a) stress
b) weight and obesity levels
c) income-earning potential
d) relationships
8) How much money could the average American student lose?
a) $25,000
b) $35,000
c) $85,000
d) $550,000
9) What could help avoid falling exam scores?
a) air conditioning
b) sleep
c) water
d) better teachers
10) Who is hotter weather particularly damaging for?
a) schools and businesses
b) students who don't eat
c) sleepy and overweight students
d) low income and minority students

Role play

Role  A – Air Conditioning
You think air conditioning is the best thing to help with exam results. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least effective of these (and why): a good teacher, sleep or a lucky charm.

Role  B – Good Teacher
You think a good teacher is the best thing to help with exam results. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least effective of these (and why): air conditioning, sleep or a lucky charm.

Role  C – Sleep
You think sleep is the best thing to help with exam results. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least effective of these (and why): a good teacher, air conditioning or a lucky charm.

Role  D – Lucky Charm
You think a lucky charm is the best thing to help with exam results. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least effective of these (and why): a good teacher, sleep or air conditioning.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'exam'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'results'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • month
    • contained
    • potential
    • lose
    • air
    • across
    • lower
    • reduce
    • days
    • major
    • effect
    • just




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - Hotter weather lowers exam results

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'exam'?
    3. What do you think of exams?
    4. How good are you at taking exams?
    5. Are exams the best way to find someone's ability?
    6. What's the worst exam you've ever taken?
    7. How does the heat affect your studying
    8. What does hot weather make it more difficult for you to do?
    9. What advice do you have for studying in hot weather?
    10. Do you prefer the heat of the cold?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'result'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. How might global warming affect your income potential?
    5. Should all schools have air conditioning?
    6. Do people in cooler countries do better at exams?
    7. What advice do you have for getting good marks in exams?
    8. What exam results made you happiest?
    9. Why would the heat be more damaging for low-income students?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the researchers?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    Hotter weather leads to lower exam results, (1) ____ to a new study from Harvard University, the University of California and Georgia State University. What's (2) ____, hot weather may reduce learning in both the short term and long term. Researchers reported that hot weather on test days and higher than (3) ____ temperatures throughout the school year resulted in poorer grades. The study is the first major research into the (4) ____ of heat on students in the USA. Researchers analyzed how test scores from 10 million American students were impacted (5) ____ the weather. Their findings showed that an average temperature increase of just 0.55ºC over one year resulted (6) ____ a one per cent decrease in learning.

    The research is in a paper called "Heat and Learning" and was (7) ____ last month by the USA's National Bureau of Economic Research. One of the more concerning conclusions (8) ____ in the study is that global warming may affect learning and the income-earning (9) ____ of students around the world. The researchers predicted that if global temperatures continued to (10) ____, the average American student could lose $25,000 in income over their lifetime because of lower exam results. Using air conditioning in classrooms could (11) ____ this. The researchers also found that hotter weather was, "particularly damaging...for low income and (12) ____ students" across the USA.

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     accordance     (b)     accord     (c)     accordion     (d)     according    
    2. (a)     most     (b)     many     (c)     much     (d)     more    
    3. (a)     averaged     (b)     average     (c)     averages     (d)     averaging    
    4. (a)     affect     (b)     infect     (c)     effect     (d)     reflect    
    5. (a)     to     (b)     of     (c)     by     (d)     at    
    6. (a)     in     (b)     at     (c)     to     (d)     by    
    7. (a)     publishing     (b)     published     (c)     publication     (d)     publish    
    8. (a)     contained     (b)     container     (c)     containing     (d)     contain    
    9. (a)     potentate     (b)     potential     (c)     potency     (d)     potion    
    10. (a)     riser     (b)     raise     (c)     rise     (d)     risen    
    11. (a)     circumlocution     (b)     circa     (c)     circumvent     (d)     circumference    
    12. (a)     genius     (b)     nebulous     (c)     pejorative     (d)     minority

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. ccoiagdnr to a new study
    2. hot weather may rdeuce learning
    3. higher than aeevarg temperatures
    4. hugotrothu the school year
    5. the efctef of heat on students
    6. Researchers adylaezn how test scores...

    Paragraph 2

    1. inucsoonscl contained in the study
    2. the income-earning tpaetnloi
    3. The researchers rdeetpcdi that
    4. could ucntirvmce this
    5. calurriltpya damaging
    6. irmynoit students

    Put the text back together

    (...)  of Economic Research. One of the more concerning conclusions contained in the study is that global warming may
    (...)  research into the effect of heat on students in the USA. Researchers analyzed how test scores from 10 million American students were
    (...)  impacted by the weather. Their findings showed that an average temperature increase
    (...)  affect learning and the income-earning potential of students around the world. The researchers predicted that if global
    1  ) Hotter weather leads to lower exam results, according to a new study from Harvard University, the University
    (...)  of California and Georgia State University. What's more, hot weather may reduce learning in both the short term
    (...)  The research is in a paper called "Heat and Learning" and was published last month by the USA's National Bureau
    (...)  temperatures throughout the school year, resulted in poorer grades. The study is the first major
    (...)  of just 0.55ºC over one year resulted in a 1 per cent decrease in learning.
    (...)  and long term. Researchers reported that hot weather on test days, and higher than average
    (...)  temperatures continued to rise, the average American student could lose $25,000 in
    (...)  could circumvent this. The researchers also found that hotter weather was, "particularly
    (...)  income over their lifetime because of lower exam results. Using air conditioning in classrooms
    (...)  damaging...for low income and minority students" across the USA.

    Put the words in the right order

    1. new   University   .   from   to   a   According   Harvard   study
    2. the   school   than  average  year  .  throughout   temperatures   Higher
    3. of   heat   .   The   first   effect   research   into   the
    4. by   weather   .   students   impacted   million   Ten   American   were
    5. of   increase   temperature   average   0   .55ºC   .   just   An
    6. conclusions   concerning   more   the   contained   study   .   in   The
    7. the   income-earning   around   students   potential   of   world   .   The
    8. lower   because   results   .   of   Lose   exam   $25,000
    9. classrooms   conditioning   circumvent   Using   in   air   could   this   .
    10. found  damaging  .  hotter  that  weather  was  particularly  Researchers

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    Hotter weather leads / leaden to lower exam results, according to a new study from Harvard University, the University of California and Georgia State University. What's most / more, hot weather may deduce / reduce learning in both the short term and long term. Researchers reported that hot weather on test days and higher / heightened than average temperatures throughout the school year resulted on / in poorer grades. The study is the first majority / major research into the effect of heat / hot on students in the USA. Researchers analyzed who / how test scores from 10 million American students were impacted / compacted by the weather. Their findings / foundries showed that an average temperature increase for / of just 0.55ºC over one year resulted in a 1 per cent decrease in learning.

    The research is in a paper called "Heat and Learning" and was publishing / published last month by the USA's National Bureau of Economic Research. One of the more concern / concerning conclusions contained in the study is that global warming may effect / affect learning and the income-earning potential of students about / around the world. The researchers predicted that if global temperatures continued to rise / raise, the average American student could lose $25,000 in / on income over their lifetime because for / of lower exam results. Using air conditioning / conditioner in classrooms could circumvent this. The researchers also found that hotter weather was, "particularly damage damaging...for low income and minority / majority students" across the USA.

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    H_t t_r w__ t h_r l__ d s t_ l_w_r _x_m r_s_l t s , _c c_r d_n g t_ _ n_w s t_d y f r_m H_r v_r d U n_v_r s_t y , t h_ U n_v_r s_t y _f C_l_f_r n__ _n d G__ r g__ S t_t_ U n_v_r s_t y . W h_t ' s m_r_, h_t w__ t h_r m_y r_d_c_ l__ r n_n g _n b_t h t h_ s h_r t t_r m _n d l_n g t_r m . R_s__ r c h_r s r_p_r t_d t h_t h_t w__ t h_r _n t_s t d_y s _n d h_g h_r t h_n _v_r_g_ t_m p_r_t_r_s t h r__ g h__ t t h_ s c h__ l y__ r r_s_l t_d _n p__ r_r g r_d_s . T h_ s t_d y _s t h_ f_r s t m_j_r r_s__ r c h _n t_ t h_ _f f_c t _f h__ t _n s t_d_n t s _n t h_ U S A . R_s__ r c h_r s _n_l y z_d h_w t_s t s c_r_s f r_m 1 0 m_l l__ n A m_r_c_n s t_d_n t s w_r_ _m p_c t_d b y t h_ w__ t h_r . T h__ r f_n d_n g s s h_w_d t h_t _n _v_r_g_ t_m p_r_t_r_ _n c r__ s_ _f j_s t 0 . 5 5 º C _v_r _n_ y__ r r_s_l t_d _n _ 1 p_r c_n t d_c r__ s_ _n l__ r n_n g .

    T h_ r_s__ r c h _s _n _ p_p_r c_l l_d " H__ t _n d L__ r n_n g " _n d w_s p_b l_s h_d l_s t m_n t h b y t h_ U S A ' s N_t__ n_l B_r___ _f E c_n_m_c R_s__ r c h . O n_ _f t h_ m_r_ c_n c_r n_n g c_n c l_s__ n s c_n t__ n_d _n t h_ s t_d y _s t h_t g l_b_l w_r m_n g m_y _f f_c t l__ n_n g _n d t h_ _n c_m_-__ r n_n g p_t_n t__ l _f s t_d_n t s _r__ n d t h_ w_r l d . T h_ r_s__ r c h_r s p r_d_c t_d t h_t _f g l_b_l t_m p_r_t_r_s c_n t_n__ d t_ r_s_, t h_ _v_r_g_ A m_r_c_n s t_d_n t c__ l d l_s_ $ 2 5 , 0 0 0 _n _n c_m_ _v_r t h__ r l_f_t_m_ b_c__ s_ _f l_w_r _x_m r_s_l t s . U s_n g __ r c_n d_t__ n_n g _n c l_s s r__ m s c__ l d c_r c_m v_n t t h_s . T h_ r_s__ r c h_r s _l s_ f__ n d t h_t h_t t_r w__ t h_r w_s , " p_r t_c_l_r l y d_m_g_n g . . . f_r l_w _n c_m_ _n d m_n_r_t y s t_d_n t s " _c r_s s t h_ U S A .

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    hotter weather leads to lower exam results according to a new study from harvard university the university of california and georgia state university whats more hot weather may reduce learning in both the short term and long term researchers reported that hot weather on test days and higher than average temperatures throughout the school year resulted in poorer grades the study is the first major research into the effect of heat on students in the usa researchers analyzed how test scores from 10 million american students were impacted by the weather their findings showed that an average temperature increase of just 055c over one year resulted in a 1 per cent decrease in learning

    the research is in a paper called heat and learning and was published last month by the usas national bureau of economic research one of the more concerning conclusions contained in the study is that global warming may affect learning and the income earning potential of students around the world the researchers predicted that if global temperatures continued to rise the average american student could lose 25000 in income over their lifetime because of lower exam results using air conditioning in classrooms could circumvent this the researchers also found that hotter weather was particularly damaging for low income and minority students across the usa

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    Hotterweatherleadstolowerexamresults,accordingtoanewstudyfro
    mHarvardUniversity,theUniversityofCaliforniaandGeorgiaStateUniv
    ersity.What'smore,hotweathermayreducelearninginboththeshortte
    rmandlongterm.Researchersreportedthathotweatherontestdaysan
    dhigherthanaveragetemperaturesthroughouttheschoolyearresulte
    dinpoorergrades.Thestudyisthefirstmajorresearchintotheeffectofhe
    atonstudentsintheUSA.Researchersanalyzedhowtestscoresfrom10
    millionAmericanstudentswereimpactedbytheweather.Theirfindings
    showedthatanaveragetemperatureincreaseofjust0.55ºCoveroneye
    arresultedinaonepercentdecreaseinlearning.Theresearchisinapaper
    called"HeatandLearning"andwaspublishedlastmonthbytheUSA'sNa
    tionalBureauofEconomicResearch.Oneofthemoreconcerningconclus
    ionscontainedinthestudyisthatglobalwarmingmayaffectleaningandt
    heincome-earningpotentialofstudentsaroundtheworld.Theresearch
    erspredictedthatifglobaltemperaturescontinuedtorise,theaverageA
    mericanstudentcouldlose$25,000inincomeovertheirlifetimebecaus
    eoflowerexamresults.Usingairconditioninginclassroomscouldcircu
    mventthis.Theresearchersalsofoundthathotterweatherwas,"particu
    larlydamaging...forlowincomeandminoritystudents"acrosstheUSA.

    Free writing

    Write about exam results for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    Students must learn how to study in hot temperatures. Discuss.

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. EXAM RESULTS: Make a poster about exam results. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. HOT TEMPERATURE TRAINING: Write a magazine article about students being given hot temperature training so they can study in hot weather. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on exam results. Ask him/her three questions about them. Give him/her three of your ideas on how students can study better in hot weather. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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