The Reading / Listening - Identical Twins - Level 5

A study shows that while identical twins can look alike, they are not clones of each other. Scientists analyzed the DNA from 387 pairs of identical twins. These are people born from a single fertilized egg. The scientists looked for mutations in the early stages of development. A mutation is a tiny change in the sequence of the DNA. This can occur when a cell divides. This change causes a slight difference in the DNA when it duplicates. A tiny change can create differences in height, intelligence, eye colour and even in how easily someone can catch a disease.



The study shows that in about 15 per cent of identical twins, one twin carried a "substantial" number of mutations that the other did not have. This difference is important as it sheds light on the "nature versus nurture" debate. This is whether human behaviour is caused by socializing and upbringing, or by a person's genes. The research shows that this tiny difference, and not environmental factors, could be the reason for different behavioural characteristics or medical conditions. A professor said a genetic mutation may be the source of a disease or trait.

Try the same news story at these levels:

    Identical Twins - Level 4 or  Identical Twins - Level 6

Sources
  • https://www.theguardian.com/science/2021/jan/08/identical-twins-are-not-so-identical-study-suggests
  • https://www.huffpost.com/entry/twins-not-perfect-clones-study_n_5ff785b2c5b6fc79f463c60c
  • https://www.livescience.com/identical-twins-dont-share-all-dna.html


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Phrase Matching

Paragraph 1

  1. they are not clones
  2. a single fertilized
  3. mutations in the early stages of
  4. A mutation is a tiny change in
  5. This can occur when
  6. a slight difference in the DNA
  7. create differences
  8. how easily someone can
  1. when it duplicates
  2. the sequence
  3. catch a disease
  4. egg
  5. in height
  6. development
  7. a cell divides
  8. of each other

Paragraph 2

  1. in about 15 per cent
  2. it sheds light on the nature versus
  3. whether human behaviour is
  4. by a person's
  5. this tiny
  6. environmental
  7. medical
  8. the source
  1. caused by socializing
  2. of identical twins
  3. difference
  4. of a disease or trait
  5. factors
  6. conditions
  7. nurture debate
  8. genes

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

A study shows that while identical twins (1) ___________________, they are not clones of each other. Scientists analyzed the DNA from (2) ___________________ identical twins. These are people born from a single fertilized egg. The scientists (3) ___________________ in the early stages of development. A mutation is a tiny change in (4) ___________________ the DNA. This can occur when a cell divides. This change causes a slight difference in the DNA (5) ___________________. A tiny change can create differences in height, intelligence, eye colour and even in how easily someone can (6) ___________________.

The study shows (7) ___________________ 15 per cent of identical twins, one twin carried a "substantial" (8) ___________________ that the other did not have. This difference is important as it sheds light on the "(9) ___________________" debate. This is whether human behaviour is caused by socializing and upbringing, or by a person's genes. The research (10) ___________________ tiny difference, and not environmental factors, could be (11) ___________________ different behavioural characteristics or medical conditions. A professor said a genetic mutation may be the source of a (12) ___________________.

Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

Astudyshowsthatwhileidenticaltwinscanlookalike,theyarenotclones
ofeachother.ScientistsanalyzedtheDNAfrom387pairsofidenticaltwin
s.Thesearepeoplebornfromasinglefertilizedegg.Thescientistslooked
formutationsintheearlystagesofdevelopment.Amutationisatinychan
geinthesequenceoftheDNA.Thiscanoccurwhenacelldivides.Thischan
gecausesaslightdifferenceintheDNAwhenitduplicates.Atinychangec
ancreatedifferencesinheight,intelligence,eyecolourandeveninhowe
asilysomeonecancatchadisease.Thestudyshowsthatinabout15perce
ntofidenticaltwins,onetwincarrieda"substantial"numberofmutation
sthattheotherdidnothave.Thisdifferenceisimportantasitshedslighto
nthe"natureversusnurture"debate.Thisiswhetherhumanbehaviouri
scausedbysocializingandupbringing,orbyaperson'sgenes.Theresear
chshowsthatthistinydifference,andnotenvironmentalfactors,couldb
ethereasonfordifferentbehaviouralcharacteristicsormedicalconditio
ns.Aprofessorsaidageneticmutationmaybethesourceofadiseaseortr
ait.

Student survey

Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

(Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

Discussion — Write your own questions

STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

(a) ________________

(b) ________________

(c) ________________

(d) ________________

(e) ________________

(f) ________________

(g) ________________

(h) ________________

STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

(i) ________________

(j) ________________

(k) ________________

(l) ________________

(m) ________________

(n) ________________

(o) ________________

(p) ________________





Free writing

Write about this topic for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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Answers

(Please check your answers against the article above.

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