The Reading / Listening - Identical Twins - Level 6

A new study shows that while identical twins can look perfectly alike, it is not a perfect similarity. They are not clones of each other. Scientists at the University of Iceland analyzed the DNA from 387 pairs of identical twins - babies born from a single fertilized egg. The scientists compared the DNA with that of the twins' parents and children. The geneticists looked for mutations in the early stages of development. A mutation is a tiny change in the sequence of the DNA that can occur when a cell divides. This change causes a slight difference in the DNA replication process. A single, tiny change can create differences in height, intelligence, eye colour and even in susceptibility to disease.



The study shows that identical twins do not share totally identical DNA. In about 15 per cent of identical twin pairs, one twin carried a "substantial" number of mutations that the other did not share. The scientists say this difference is important as it sheds light on the "nature versus nurture" debate. This is whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, socialization and upbringing, or by a person's genes. The research shows that this tiny difference, and not environmental factors, could be the reason why one twin develops different behavioural characteristics or medical conditions. Professor Kari Stefansson said a genetic mutation may be the source of a given disease or trait.

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Identical Twins - Level 4  or  Identical Twins - Level 5

Sources
  • https://www.theguardian.com/science/2021/jan/08/identical-twins-are-not-so-identical-study-suggests
  • https://www.huffpost.com/entry/twins-not-perfect-clones-study_n_5ff785b2c5b6fc79f463c60c
  • https://www.livescience.com/identical-twins-dont-share-all-dna.html


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. IDENTICAL TWINS: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about identical twins. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       identical / twins / perfect / similarity / clone / parents / geneticists / mutation / height
       share / scientists / nature / nurture / human behaviour / genes / medical / disease
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. DNA: Students A strongly believe scientists should amend DNA to make us healthier; Students B strongly believe otherwise. Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. CHILD: What are the gad and bad things about being one of these? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

Good Things

Bad Things

An identical twin

 

 

A quadruplet

 

 

An only child

 

 

The eldest sibling

 

 

The youngest sibling

 

 

The middle of 9 children

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. PERFECT: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "perfect". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. CHARACTERISTICS: Rank these with your partner. Put the best at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • Good looks
  • Intelligence
  • Sense of humor
  • Being tall
  • Optimistic
  • Energetic
  • Hair
  • Good skin

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. alike a. A person or thing regarded as identical to another.
      2. clone b. The action of copying or reproducing something.
      3. fertilized c. Two or more subjects similar to each other.
      4. replication d. A particular order in which related events, movements, or things follow each other.
      5. mutation e. The action or process of changing or causing to change in form or nature.
      6. sequence f. The state or fact of being likely or liable to be influenced or harmed by a particular thing.
      7. susceptibility g. Caused an egg, female animal, or plant to develop a new individual by introducing male reproductive material.

    Paragraph 2

      8. substantial h. A distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person.
      9. shed light on i. The treatment and instruction received by a child from its parents throughout its childhood.
      10. nurture j. Unit of information transferred from a parent to child that causes characteristics or behaviours in that child.
      11. upbringing k. Of considerable importance, size, or value.
      12. genes l. Help to explain something by providing further information about it.
      13. characteristic m. A feature or quality belonging typically to a person, place, or thing and serving to identify it.
      14. trait n. Care for and encourage the growth or development of.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. A study suggests identical twins could in fact be clones of each other.     T / F
  2. Scientists looked at data from 387 identical twins.     T / F
  3. Scientists ignored any mutations found in DNA.     T / F
  4. A change in the DNA replication process can affect intelligence.     T / F
  5. About 15% of identical twin pairs had totally identical DNA.     T / F
  6. The research adds understanding to the nature versus nurture debate.    T / F
  7. The research shows DNA mutations makes identical twins less identical.  T / F
  8. A professor said genetic mutations might give rise to a certain trait.     T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. perfectly
  2. analyzed
  3. single
  4. mutation
  5. susceptibility
  6. substantial
  7. sheds light on
  8. determined
  9. upbringing
  10. trait
  1. childhood
  2. alteration
  3. helps to explain
  4. vulnerability
  5. examined
  6. affected
  7. considerable
  8. in every respect
  9. characteristic
  10. solitary

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. identical twins can look
  2. They are not clones
  3. babies born from a single
  4. mutations in the early stages
  5. susceptibility to
  6. a substantial
  7. it sheds light on the nature versus
  8. the environment, socialization
  9. medical
  10. the source of a given disease
  1. number of mutations
  2. disease
  3. or trait
  4. conditions
  5. of each other
  6. of development
  7. and upbringing
  8. perfectly alike
  9. nurture debate
  10. fertilized egg

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
single
tiny
process
perfectly
susceptibility
similarity
divides
mutations

A new study shows that while identical twins can look (1) _____________________ alike, it is not a perfect (2) _____________________. They are not clones of each other. Scientists at the University of Iceland analyzed the DNA from 387 pairs of identical twins - babies born from a (3) _____________________ fertilized egg. The scientists compared the DNA with that of the twins' parents and children. The geneticists looked for (4) _____________________ in the early stages of development. A mutation is a (5) _____________________ change in the sequence of the DNA that can occur when a cell (6) _____________________. This change causes a slight difference in the DNA replication (7) _____________________. A single, tiny change can create differences in height, intelligence, eye colour and even in (8) _____________________ to disease.

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
substantial
reason
debate
source
sheds
medical
share
genes

The study shows that identical twins do not (9) _____________________ totally identical DNA. In about 15 per cent of identical twin pairs, one twin carried a "(10) _____________________" number of mutations that the other did not share. The scientists say this difference is important as it (11) _____________________ light on the "nature versus nurture" (12) _____________________. This is whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, socialization and upbringing, or by a person's (13) _____________________. The research shows that this tiny difference, and not environmental factors, could be the (14) _____________________ why one twin develops different behavioural characteristics or (15) _____________________ conditions. Professor Kari Stefansson said a genetic mutation may be the (16) _____________________ of a given disease or trait.

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)  A new study shows that while identical twins can ______
     a.  look perfectly as like
     b.  look perfect alike
     c.  look perfectly alike
     d.  look perfectly like
2)  it is not a perfect similarity. They are not ______ other
     a.  cloze of each
     b.  close of each
     c.  clones of each
     d.  clone of each
3)  DNA from 387 pairs of identical twins - babies born from a ______
     a.  single fertilized egg
     b.  single fertilize egg
     c.  singles fertilized egg
     d.  singled fertilized egg
4)  A mutation is a tiny change in the sequence of the DNA that can ______ cell divides
     a.  occur what a
     b.  occur while a
     c.  occur when a
     d.  occur which a
5)  differences in height, intelligence, eye colour and even in ______
     a.  susceptibility of disease
     b.  susceptibility at disease
     c.  susceptibility to disease
     d.  susceptibility on disease

6)  The study shows that identical twins do not share ______
     a.  total identical DNA
     b.  totally identically DNA
     c.  totally identical DNA
     d.  totally identically DNA
7)  identical twin pairs, one twin carried a "substantial" ______
     a.  numbers of mutations
     b.  number of mute stations
     c.  numb bar of mew stations
     d.  number of mutations
8)  this difference is important as it sheds light on the "nature ______
     a.  versus nature" debate
     b.  versus natural" debate
     c.  versus venture" debate
     d.  versus nurture" debate
9)  by the environment, socialization and upbringing, or by ______
     a.  ape person's genes
     b.  a person's jeans
     c.  ape person's jeans
     d.  a person's genes
10)  a genetic mutation may be the source of a given ______
     a.  disease or trait
     b.  diseased or strait
     c.  disease or straight
     d.  disease or taint

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

A new study shows that while identical twins can (1) ___________________, it is not a perfect similarity. They are not (2) ____________________ other. Scientists at the University of Iceland analyzed the DNA from 387 pairs of identical twins - babies born from a (3) ____________________. The scientists compared the DNA with that of the twins' parents and children. The geneticists looked (4) ____________________ the early stages of development. A mutation is a tiny change in the sequence of the DNA that can occur when a cell divides. This change (5) ____________________ difference in the DNA replication process. A single, tiny change can create differences in height, intelligence, eye colour and even (6) ____________________ disease.

The study shows that identical twins do not (7) ____________________ DNA. In about 15 per cent of identical twin pairs, one twin (8) ____________________ number of mutations that the other did not share. The scientists say this difference is important as it (9) ____________________ the "nature versus nurture" debate. This is whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, socialization and upbringing, or by (10) ____________________. The research shows that this tiny difference, and not environmental factors, could be the reason why (11) ____________________ different behavioural characteristics or medical conditions. Professor Kari Stefansson said a genetic mutation may be the source of a given (12) ____________________.

Comprehension questions

  1. What does the article say identical twins are not clones of?
  2. How many identical twins did scientists look at the DNA of?
  3. Whose DNA did scientists compare the twins' DNA to?
  4. What did the scientists look for?
  5. What might DNA mutations increase the susceptibility of?
  6. What does the DNA show identical twins do not share?
  7. What debate does the research shed light on?
  8. What might affect our behaviour besides socialization and environment?
  9. What might be the reason for differences in medical conditions?
  10. What does a professor say may be the source of a disease or trait?




Multiple choice quiz

1)  What does the article say identical twins are not clones of?
a) robots
b) each other
c) parents
d) grandparents
2) How many identical twins did scientists look at the DNA of?
a) 3,870
b) 387
c) 7,740
d) 774
3) Whose DNA did scientists compare the twins' DNA to?
a) a database
b) ancestors
c) parents and children
d) their own
4) What did the scientists look for?
a) mutations
b) DNA
c) cells
d) twins
5) What might DNA mutations increase the susceptibility of?
a) baldness
b) disease
c) a lack of energy
d) danger

6) What does the DNA show identical twins do not share?
a) totally identical DNA
b) intelligence
c) the same hair colour
d) the same height
7) What debate does the research shed light on?
a) the great debate
b) the debate on life
c) the nature versus nurture debate
d) an economic debate
8) What might affect our behaviour besides socialization and environment?
a) upbringing
b) chemicals
c) drugs
d) money
9) What might be the reason for differences in medical conditions?
a) upbringing
b) money
c) debate
d) a tiny difference in DNA
10) What does a professor say may be the source of a disease or trait?
a) wealth
b) global warming
c) a genetic mutation
d) social media

Role play

Role  A – Good Looks
You think good looks are the best thing to inherit from your parents. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things aren't as important. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): a sense of humour, being tall or intelligence.

Role  B – Sense of Humour
You think a sense of humour is the best thing to inherit from your parents. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things aren't as important. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): good looks, being tall or intelligence.

Role  C – Being Tall
You think being tall is the best thing to inherit from your parents. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things aren't as important. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): a sense of humour, good looks or intelligence.

Role  D – Intelligence
You think intelligence is the best thing to inherit from your parents. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things aren't as important. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): a sense of humour, being tall or good looks.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'identical'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'twins'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • while
    • clones
    • born
    • early
    • slight
    • create
    • shows
    • carried
    • sheds
    • genes
    • reason
    • trait




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - Identical Twins

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'identical'?
    3. What do you know about twins?
    4. What are the good things abut being an identical twin?
    5. What do you think of cloning?
    6. What do you know about DNA?
    7. How much do you look like your parents or siblings?
    8. In what ways do you take after your parents?
    9. Would you like to be an identical twin?
    10. Would you prefer to be a twin or a quadruplet?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'twins'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. What are the differences between twins and identical twins?
    5. What do you know of the 'nature versus nurture' debate?
    6. What parts of your genes would you want to go to your children?
    7. Are we born with our personality or does our upbringing make it?
    8. What changes would you have wanted made to your DNA?
    9. How did your upbringing change you?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the scientists?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    A new study shows that while identical twins can look perfectly (1) ____, it is not a perfect similarity. They are not (2) ____ of each other. Scientists at the University of Iceland analyzed the DNA from 387 pairs of identical twins - babies born from a (3) ____ fertilized egg. The scientists compared the DNA with (4) ____ of the twins' parents and children. The geneticists looked for mutations in the early stages of development. A mutation is a tiny change in the sequence of the DNA that can occur when a cell divides. This change causes a (5) ____ difference in the DNA replication process. A single, tiny change can create differences in height, intelligence, eye colour and even in susceptibility (6) ____ disease.

    The study shows that identical twins do not (7) ____ totally identical DNA. In about 15 per cent of identical twin pairs, one twin carried a "substantial" number of mutations that the (8) ____ did not share. The scientists say this difference is important as it sheds light on the "nature versus (9) ____" debate. This is whether human behaviour is determined (10) ____ the environment, socialization and upbringing, or by a person's genes. The research shows that this tiny difference, and not environmental factors, could (11) ____ the reason why one twin develops different behavioural characteristics or medical conditions. Professor Kari Stefansson said a genetic mutation may be the source of a given disease or (12) ____.

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     likely     (b)     alike     (c)     liked     (d)     liking    
    2. (a)     cloze     (b)     clones     (c)     clothes     (d)     closed    
    3. (a)     singled out     (b)     singled     (c)     singles     (d)     single    
    4. (a)     them     (b)     that     (c)     this     (d)     those    
    5. (a)     blight     (b)     smite     (c)     fright     (d)     slight    
    6. (a)     of     (b)     on     (c)     to     (d)     at    
    7. (a)     share     (b)     shave     (c)     shade     (d)     shape    
    8. (a)     others     (b)     another     (c)     other     (d)     otherly    
    9. (a)     naturalistic     (b)     naturism     (c)     natural     (d)     nurture    
    10. (a)     by     (b)     of     (c)     on     (d)     at    
    11. (a)     be     (b)     do     (c)     have     (d)     pertain    
    12. (a)     trait     (b)     trail     (c)     train     (d)     traipse

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. it is not a perfect aimriilsyt
    2. from a single rlzdiietfe egg
    3. A tiomaunt is a tiny change
    4. the esceuqne of the DNA
    5. the DNA nicitoplrae process
    6. ipbicsteyltisu to disease

    Paragraph 2

    1. one twin carried a tsnastibula number
    2. the nature versus ruenrut debate
    3. the environment, socialization and ibnirgugpn
    4. a person's sngee
    5. behavioural aiartcerscsthci
    6. a given disease or rttai

    Put the text back together

    (...)  difference in the DNA replication process. A single, tiny change can create differences
    (...)  conditions. Professor Kari Stefansson said a genetic mutation may be the source of a given disease or trait.
    (...)  change in the sequence of the DNA that can occur when a cell divides. This change causes a slight
    (...)  The study shows that identical twins do not share totally identical DNA. In about 15 per cent of identical twin pairs, one
    (...)  twin carried a "substantial" number of mutations that the other did not share. The scientists say this difference
    (...)  and children. The geneticists looked for mutations in the early stages of development. A mutation is a tiny
    (...)  is important as it sheds light on the "nature versus nurture" debate. This is whether human
    (...)  genes. The research shows that this tiny difference, and not environmental factors, could
    1  ) A new study shows that while identical twins can look perfectly alike, it is not a perfect similarity. They are not clones
    (...)  be the reason why one twin develops different behavioural characteristics or medical
    (...)  behaviour is determined by the environment, socialization and upbringing, or by a person's
    (...)  born from a single fertilized egg. The scientists compared the DNA with that of the twins' parents
    (...)  of each other. Scientists at the University of Iceland analyzed the DNA from 387 pairs of identical twins - babies
    (...)  in height, intelligence, eye colour and even in susceptibility to disease.

    Put the words in the right order

    1. of   clones   are   not   other   .   each   They
    2. egg   .   single   Twin   babies   from   fertilized   born   a
    3. mutations   early   in   stages   .   for   Geneticists   the   looked
    4. the   sequence   changes   the   DNA   .   in   of   Tiny
    5. differences   create   A   can   change   single   in   height   .
    6. share   not   totally   twins   DNA   .   identical   do   Identical
    7. carried   substantial   twin   One   mutations   .   of   a   number
    8. nurture"   versus   the   "nature   debate   .   Shed   light   on
    9. one   The   why   develops   reason   characteristics   .   twin   different
    10. the   A   source   .   genetic   be   may   mutation

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    A new study shows that while identically / identical twins can look perfectly alike, it is not a perfect similarity. They are not clozes / clones of each other. Scientists at the University of Iceland analyzed the DNA from 387 pairs of identical twins - babies born from a single sterilized / fertilized egg. The scientists compared the DNA with that / those of the twins' parents and children. The geneticists looked for mutations in the fast / early stages of development. A mutation / mutant is a tiny change in the sequence of the DNA that can occur when a cell shares / divides. This change causes a smite / slight difference in the DNA replication process. A single, tiny change can create differences in / on height, intelligence, eye colour and even in susceptibility / perceptibility to disease.

    The study shows that identical twins do not share total / totally identical DNA. In about 15 per cent of identical twin pairs, one twin carried a "substantial / substantially" number of mutations that the other did not share. The scientists say this diffidence / difference is important as it shacks / sheds light on the "nature versus nurture / naturism" debate. This is whether human behaviour is determined of / by the environment, socialization and upbringing, or by a person's genes / jeans. The research shows that this tiny difference, and not environmental factors / factories, could be the reason why once / one twin develops different behavioural characteristics or medical conditions. Professor Kari Stefansson said a genetic mutation may be the source / sauce of a given disease or trait.

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    _  n_w  st_dy  sh_ws  th_t  wh_l_  _d_nt_c_l  tw_ns  c_n  l__k  p_rf_ctly  _l_k_,  _t  _s  n_t  _  p_rf_ct  s_m_l_r_ty.  Th_y  _r_  n_t  cl_n_s  _f  __ch  _th_r.  Sc__nt_sts  _t  th_  _n_v_rs_ty  _f  _c_l_nd  _n_lyz_d  th_  DN_  fr_m  387  p__rs  _f  _d_nt_c_l  tw_ns  -  b_b__s  b_rn  fr_m  _  s_ngl_  f_rt_l_z_d  _gg.  Th_  sc__nt_sts  c_mp_r_d  th_  DN_  w_th  th_t  _f  th_  tw_ns'  p_r_nts  _nd  ch_ldr_n.  Th_  g_n_t_c_sts  l__k_d  f_r  m_t_t__ns  _n  th_  __rly  st_g_s  _f  d_v_l_pm_nt.  _  m_t_t__n  _s  _  t_ny  ch_ng_  _n  th_  s_q__nc_  _f  th_  DN_  th_t  c_n  _cc_r  wh_n  _  c_ll  d_v_d_s.  Th_s  ch_ng_  c__s_s  _  sl_ght  d_ff_r_nc_  _n  th_  DN_  r_pl_c_t__n  pr_c_ss.  _  s_ngl_,  t_ny  ch_ng_  c_n  cr__t_  d_ff_r_nc_s  _n  h__ght,  _nt_ll_g_nc_,  _y_  c_l__r  _nd  _v_n  _n  s_sc_pt_b_l_ty  t_  d_s__s_.

    Th_  st_dy  sh_ws  th_t  _d_nt_c_l  tw_ns  d_  n_t  sh_r_  t_t_lly  _d_nt_c_l  DN_.  _n  _b__t  15  p_r  c_nt  _f  _d_nt_c_l  tw_n  p__rs,  _n_  tw_n  c_rr__d  _  "s_bst_nt__l"  n_mb_r  _f  m_t_t__ns  th_t  th_  _th_r  d_d  n_t  sh_r_.  Th_  sc__nt_sts  s_y  th_s  d_ff_r_nc_  _s  _mp_rt_nt  _s  _t  sh_ds  l_ght  _n  th_  "n_t_r_  v_rs_s  n_rt_r_"  d_b_t_.  Th_s  _s  wh_th_r  h_m_n  b_h_v__r  _s  d_t_rm_n_d  by  th_  _nv_r_nm_nt,  s_c__l_z_t__n  _nd  _pbr_ng_ng,  _r  by  _  p_rs_n's  g_n_s.  Th_  r_s__rch  sh_ws  th_t  th_s  t_ny  d_ff_r_nc_,  _nd  n_t  _nv_r_nm_nt_l  f_ct_rs,  c__ld  b_  th_  r__s_n  why  _n_  tw_n  d_v_l_ps  d_ff_r_nt  b_h_v___r_l  ch_r_ct_r_st_cs  _r  m_d_c_l  c_nd_t__ns.  Pr_f_ss_r  K_r_  St_f_nss_n  s__d  _  g_n_t_c  m_t_t__n  m_y  b_  th_  s__rc_  _f  _  g_v_n  d_s__s_  _r  tr__t.

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    a new study shows that while identical twins can look perfectly alike it is not a perfect similarity they are not clones of each other scientists at the university of iceland analyzed the dna from 387 pairs of identical twins  babies born from a single fertilized egg the scientists compared the dna with that of the twins parents and children the geneticists looked for mutations in the early stages of development a mutation is a tiny change in the sequence of the dna that can occur when a cell divides this change causes a slight difference in the dna replication process a single tiny change can create differences in height intelligence eye colour and even in susceptibility to disease

    the study shows that identical twins do not share totally identical dna in about 15 per cent of identical twin pairs one twin carried a substantial number of mutations that the other did not share the scientists say this difference is important as it sheds light on the nature versus nurture debate this is whether human behavior is determined by the environment socialization and upbringing or by a persons genes the research shows that this tiny difference and not environmental factors could be the reason why one twin develops different behavioural characteristics or medical conditions professor kari stefansson said a genetic mutation may be the source of a given disease or trait

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    Anewstudyshowsthatwhileidenticaltwinscanlookperfectlyalike,itisn
    otaperfectsimilarity.Theyarenotclonesofeachother.ScientistsattheU
    niversityofIcelandanalyzedtheDNAfrom387pairsofidenticaltwins-b
    abiesbornfromasinglefertilizedegg.ThescientistscomparedtheDNA
    withthatofthetwins'parentsandchildren.Thegeneticistslookedformu
    tationsintheearlystagesofdevelopment.Amutationisatinychangeint
    hesequenceoftheDNAthatcanoccurwhenacelldivides.Thischangeca
    usesaslightdifferenceintheDNAreplicationprocess.Asingle,tinychan
    gecancreatedifferencesinheight,intelligence,eyecolourandeveninsu
    sceptibilitytodisease.Thestudyshowsthatidenticaltwinsdonotsharet
    otallyidenticalDNA.Inabout15percentofidenticaltwinpairs,onetwinc
    arrieda"substantial"numberofmutationsthattheotherdidnotshare.T
    hescientistssaythisdifferenceisimportantasitshedslightonthe"natur
    eversusnurture"debate.Thisiswhetherhumanbehaviourisdetermine
    dbytheenvironment,socializationandupbringing,orbyaperson'sgene
    s.Theresearchshowsthatthistinydifference,andnotenvironmentalfac
    tors,couldbethereasonwhyonetwindevelopsdifferentbehaviouralch
    aracteristicsormedicalconditions.ProfessorKariStefanssonsaidagen
    eticmutationmaybethesourceofagivendiseaseortrait.

    Free writing

    Write about identical twins for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

     

    Academic writing

    It is important we all understand the nature versus nurture debate. Discuss.

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________________

     

    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. IDENTICAL TWINS: Make a poster about identical twins. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. DNA: Write a magazine article about governments spending a lot more money of researching DNA. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on identical twins. Ask him/her three questions about them. Give him/her three of your ideas the advantages and disadvantages of being an identical twin. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Help Support This Web Site

    • Please consider helping Breaking News English.com

    Sean Banville's Book

    Thank You