The Reading / Listening - Self-awareness - Level 6

Have you ever wondered what animals think about? A team of scientists explored this question by investigating whether dogs have self-awareness. Researchers from a university in Hungary set out to determine whether canines have a sense of self and of body awareness. Researcher Peter Pongracz explained why his team conducted the study. He said: "Self-awareness is a rather poorly investigated area of dog cognition." He added: "Body awareness is a mental capacity to organize someone's action by taking in consideration their own body exists." His test put dogs in situations that would make them aware of their body position. The study is published in the journal "Scientific Reports".



The scientists conducted tests on 54 dogs. The dogs had to respond to commands from their owners. Researchers attached a toy to a mat and asked the dog to give the toy to its owner. The dog had to understand it would be unable to take the toy to its owner unless it got off the mat first. Many of the dogs understood the issue and got off the mat to complete the task. The researchers said this showed a sense of body awareness. They wrote that body awareness is, "the ability to hold information about one's own body in mind, as an explicit object, in relation to other objects in the world". They said this is "one of the fundamental building blocks of self-representation" and that the dogs in the tests exhibited this.

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Self-awareness - Level 4  or  Self-awareness - Level 5

Sources
  • https://www.inverse.com/science/dog-body-awareness-study
  • https://www.ctvnews.ca/sci-tech/are-dogs-self-aware-scientists-say-there-s-a-good-chance-1.5317364
  • https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/lifestyle/do-dogs-have-self-awareness/


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. SELF-AWARENESS: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about self-awareness. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       wondered / scientists / question / dogs / self-awareness / body / cognition / journal /
       tests / commands / owners / mat / information / object / building blocks / mind
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. DOG RESEARCH: Students A strongly believe research into dog self-awareness is important; Students B strongly believe it isn't. Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. ANIMALS: What do you you think these animals think about? What special skills do they have? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

Thoughts

Skills

Dogs    
Ants    
Dolphins    
Rabbits    
Snakes    
Eagles    
MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. THINK: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "think". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. PETS: Rank these with your partner. Put the best pets at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • Dog
  • Goldfish
  • Rabbit
  • Tarantula
  • Cat
  • Parrot
  • Horse
  • Tortoise

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. wondered a. Inquired into or discussed a subject or issue in detail.
      2. explored b. Find out exactly, usually as a result of research or calculation.
      3. canine c. Live: be on Earth.
      4. determine d. Related to or resembling a dog or dogs.
      5. cognition e. The ability or power to do, experience, or understand something.
      6. capacity f. Desired or was curious to know something.
      7. exists g. The mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding.

    Paragraph 2

            8. respond h. An order to do something.
            9. command i. An important topic or problem for debate or discussion.
            10. issue j. Showed.
            11. sense k. Stated clearly and in detail, leaving no room for confusion or doubt.
            12. explicit l. A function of the mind and body by which someone or knows and understands an external stimulus.
            13. fundamental m. Say or do something in reply.
            14. exhibited n. Basic.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. A team of scientists investigated self-analysis in dogs.     T / F
  2. Researchers looked into whether canines had a sense of body awareness.  T / F
  3. A researcher said there is much research into dog cognition.     T / F
  4. The study is published in a journal called "Canine Reports".     T / F
  5. The research looked at self-awareness in over 540 dogs.     T / F
  6. Dogs had to get off a mat and take a toy to their owner.     T / F
  7. A researcher said dogs understand they are an explicit object.     T / F
  8. Researchers said dogs exhibited self-representation in tests.     T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. wondered
  2. explored
  3. canines
  4. cognition
  5. aware
  6. commands
  7. attached
  8. sense
  9. fundamental
  10. exhibited
  1. conscious
  2. thought
  3. feeling
  4. basic
  5. reflected on
  6. fixed
  7. dogs
  8. orders
  9. showed
  10. investigated

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. scientists explored
  2. canines
  3. a rather poorly
  4. mental
  5. The study is published in the
  6. The scientists conducted
  7. respond to commands
  8. the ability to
  9. in relation
  10. dogs in the tests
  1. exhibited this
  2. capacity
  3. tests on 54 dogs
  4. hold information
  5. have a sense
  6. to other objects
  7. journal "Scientific Reports"
  8. from their owners
  9. investigated area
  10. this question

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
exists
poorly
explored
sense
capacity
wondered
journal
set

Have you ever (1) _____________________ what animals think about? A team of scientists (2) _____________________ this question by investigating whether dogs have self-awareness. Researchers from a university in Hungary (3) _____________________ out to determine whether canines have a (4) _____________________ of self and of body awareness. Researcher Peter Pongracz explained why his team conducted the study. He said: "Self-awareness is a rather (5) _____________________ investigated area of dog cognition." He added: "Body awareness is a mental (6) _____________________ to organize someone's action by taking in consideration their own body (7) _____________________." His test put dogs in situations that would make them aware of their body position. The study is published in the (8) _____________________ "Scientific Reports".

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
unless
ability
respond
blocks
owner
task
object
unable

The scientists conducted tests on 54 dogs. The dogs had to (9) _____________________ to commands from their owners. Researchers attached a toy to a mat and asked the dog to give the toy to its (10) _____________________. The dog had to understand it would be (11) _____________________ to take the toy to its owner (12) _____________________ it got off the mat first. Many of the dogs understood the issue and got off the mat to complete the (13) _____________________. The researchers said this showed a sense of body awareness. They wrote that body awareness is, "the (14) _____________________ to hold information about one's own body in mind, as an explicit (15) _____________________, in relation to other objects in the world". They said this is "one of the fundamental building (16) _____________________ of self-representation" and that the dogs in the tests exhibited this.

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)  Researchers from a university in Hungary set out to determine ______
     a.  whether canine have
     b.  whether cane nines have
     c.  whether cane nine have
     d.  whether canines have
2)  Researcher Peter Pongracz explained why his team ______
     a.  conduct it the study
     b.  conducting the study
     c.  conducted the study
     d.  contracted the study
3)  Self-awareness is a rather poorly investigated area ______
     a.  of dog recognition
     b.  offer dog cognition
     c.  offer dog recognition
     d.  of dog cognition
4) capacity to organize someone's action by taking in consideration their ______
     a.  own body exist
     b.  own body exists
     c.  own body existence
     d.  own body exits
5)  The study is published ______
     a.  in a journal
     b.  in that journal
     c.  in them journal
     d.  in the journal

6)  conducted tests on 54 dogs. The dogs had to ______
     a.  respond to commands
     b.  respond two commands
     c.  responds two commands
     d.  respond too commands
7)  Researchers attached a toy to a mat and asked the dog to give the toy ______
     a.  to their owner
     b.  twits owner
     c.  to wits owner
     d.  to its owner
8)  take the toy to its owner unless it got off ______
     a.  the mat fast
     b.  the matte first
     c.  them at first
     d.  the mat first
9)  the ability to hold information about one's own body in mind, as ______
     a.  an implicit object
     b.  an explicit object
     c.  an explicitly object
     d.  an explicit object
10)  building blocks of self-representation" and that the dogs in the ______
     a.  tests inhibited this
     b.  tests exhibited these
     c.  tests exhibited this
     d.  tests inhibited these

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

Have you (1) ____________________ animals think about? A team of scientists explored this question by investigating whether dogs have self-awareness. Researchers from a university in Hungary set (2) ____________________ whether canines have a sense of self and of body awareness. Researcher Peter Pongracz explained why his team (3) ____________________. He said: "Self-awareness is a rather poorly investigated area of dog cognition." He added: "Body awareness is a (4) ____________________ organize someone's action by taking in consideration their (5) ____________________." His test put dogs in situations that would make them (6) ____________________ body position. The study is published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

The scientists (7) ____________________ 54 dogs. The dogs had to respond to commands from their owners. Researchers (8) ____________________ to a mat and asked the dog to give the toy to its owner. The dog had to understand it would be unable to take the toy to (9) ____________________ it got off the mat first. Many of the dogs understood the issue and got off the mat to (10) ____________________. The researchers said this showed a sense of body awareness. They wrote that body awareness is, "the ability to hold information about one's own body in mind, as (11) ____________________, in relation to other objects in the world". They said this is "one of the fundamental building blocks of self-representation" and that the dogs in the (12) ____________________.

Comprehension questions

  1. Where is the university that conducted this research?
  2. What did a researcher say was poorly investigated?
  3. What kind of capacity did a researcher say body awareness is?
  4. What did the tests try to make dogs aware of?
  5. What is the name of the journal the study is published in?
  6. How many dogs did scientists have in the tests?
  7. What did dogs have to give to their owners?
  8. What did many of the dogs understand?
  9. What thing did a researcher say self-awareness allowed us to hold?
  10. What kinds of blocks were mentioned in the article?




Multiple choice quiz

1) Where is the university that conducted this research?
a) Romania
b) Bulgaria
c) Hungary
d) Austria
2) What did a researcher say was poorly investigated?
a) self-awareness
b) dogs
c) psychology
d) animals
3) What kind of capacity did a researcher say body awareness is?
a) physical capacity
b) mental capacity
c) overcapacity
d) under-capacity
4) What did the tests try to make dogs aware of?
a) other dogs
b) the world
c) their intelligence
d) their body position
5) What is the name of the journal the study is published in?
a) Canine Reports
b) Dog Reports
c) Scientific Reports
d) Psychology Reports

6) How many dogs did scientists have in the tests?
a) 53
b) 54
c) 52
d) 55
7) What did dogs have to give to their owners?
a) a bone
b) a ball
c) a book
d) a toy
8) What did many of the dogs understand?
a) language
b) the issue
c) psychology
d) who they were
9) What thing did a researcher say self-awareness allowed us to hold?
a) toys
b) information
c) balls
d) bones
10) What kinds of blocks were mentioned in the article?
a) building blocks
b) Lego
c) blocks of concrete
d) toy blocks

Role play

Role  A – Dogs
You think dogs are the best pets. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their pets. Also, tell the others which is the least fun of these (and why): goldfish, parrots or tortoises.
Role  B – Goldfish
You think goldfish are the best pets. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their pets. Also, tell the others which is the least fun of these (and why): dogs, parrots or tortoises.
Role  C – Parrots
You think parrots are the best pets. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their pets. Also, tell the others which is the least fun of these (and why): goldfish, dogs or tortoises.
Role  D – Tortoises
You think tortoises are the best pets. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their pets. Also, tell the others which is the least fun of these (and why): goldfish, parrots or dogs.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'dog'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'aware'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • wondered
    • university
    • explained
    • area
    • action
    • position
    • 54
    • respond
    • understand
    • task
    • mind
    • exhibited




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - Self-awareness

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'dog'?
    3. What do you think of dogs?
    4. What do you know about self-awareness?
    5. How self-aware are you?
    6. How self-aware do you think dogs are?
    7. How intelligent are dogs?
    8. What do you think dogs think about?
    9. What do you think dogs worry about?
    10. What questions would you like to ask a dog?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'self'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. What do you think of the expression: 'A dog is man's best friend'?
    5. Is a dog or a cat a better pet?
    6. How can we make dogs more self-aware?
    7. How important is this research?
    8. How would life change if you were more self-aware?
    9. What questions might dogs like to ask humans?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the researchers?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    Have you ever (1) ____ what animals think about? A team of scientists explored this question by investigating whether dogs have self-awareness. Researchers from a university in Hungary set (2) ____ to determine whether canines have a sense of (3) ____ and of body awareness. Researcher Peter Pongracz explained why his team conducted the study. He said: "Self-awareness is a (4) ____ poorly investigated area of dog cognition." He added: "Body awareness is a mental capacity to organize someone's action (5) ____ taking in consideration their own body exists." His test put dogs in situations that would (6) ____ them aware of their body position. The study is published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

    The scientists conducted tests (7) ____ 54 dogs. The dogs had to respond to commands from their owners. Researchers (8) ____ a toy to a mat and asked the dog to give the ball to its owner. The dog had to understand it would be unable to take the toy to its owner (9) ____ it got off the mat first. Many of the dogs understood the issue and got off the mat to complete the task. The researchers said this showed a sense of body awareness. They wrote that body awareness is, "the ability to (10) ____ information about one's own body in mind, as an explicit object, in relation (11) ____ other objects in the world". They said this is "one of the fundamental building blocks of self-representation" and that the dogs in the tests (12) ____ this.

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     wandering     (b)     wandered     (c)     wondered     (d)     wonder    
    2. (a)     out     (b)     in     (c)     down     (d)     by    
    3. (a)     self     (b)     other     (c)     service     (d)     selfish    
    4. (a)     rather     (b)     minor     (c)     major     (d)     prefer    
    5. (a)     to     (b)     of     (c)     at     (d)     by    
    6. (a)     form     (b)     be     (c)     do     (d)     make    
    7. (a)     on     (b)     at     (c)     of     (d)     in    
    8. (a)     arched     (b)     attached     (c)     attacked     (d)     attaché    
    9. (a)     useless     (b)     nonetheless     (c)     unless     (d)     nevertheless    
    10. (a)     fold     (b)     bold     (c)     mold     (d)     hold    
    11. (a)     by     (b)     at     (c)     of     (d)     to    
    12. (a)     inhibited     (b)     exhibited     (c)     imbibed     (d)     exited

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. etimreedn whether canines have a sense
    2. a rather poorly iseatevnigdt area
    3. mental caiptyca
    4. by taking in sinrtdioocane their own
    5. His test put dogs in utnasiiots
    6. The study is published in the jlnruao

    Paragraph 2

    1. respond to cmodmsan
    2. Researchers tatdchea a toy to a mat
    3. the dogs understood the ssuie
    4. as an txeipilc object
    5. one of the ntnmafdaeul building blocks
    6. dogs in the tests xdieiehbt this

    Put the text back together

    (...)  first. Many of the dogs understood the issue and got off the mat to complete the task. The researchers said this showed a
    (...)  taking in consideration their own body exists." His test put dogs in situations that would make them aware
    (...)  whether dogs have self-awareness. Researchers from a university in Hungary set
    (...)  why his team conducted the study. He said: "Self-awareness is a rather poorly investigated area of dog
    (...)  mind, as an explicit object, in relation to other objects in the world". They said this is "one
    (...)  to understand it would be unable to take the toy to its owner unless it got off the mat
    1  ) Have you ever wondered what animals think about? A team of scientists explored this question by investigating
    (...)  owners. Researchers attached a toy to a mat and asked the dog to give the toy to its owner. The dog had
    (...)  out to determine whether canines have a sense of self and of body awareness. Researcher Peter Pongracz explained
    (...)  The scientists conducted tests on 54 dogs. The dogs had to respond to commands from their
    (...)  cognition." He added: "Body awareness is a mental capacity to organize someone's action by
    (...)  sense of body awareness. They wrote that body awareness is, "the ability to hold information about one's own body in
    (...)  of the fundamental building blocks of self-representation" and that the dogs in the tests exhibited this.
    (...)  of their body position. The study is published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

    Put the words in the right order

    1. scientists   of   A   explored   this   question   .   team
    2. whether   sense   of   self   .   canines   have   a   Determine
    3. the   why   team   study   .   explained   his   conducted   He
    4. of   A   poorly   area   dog   rather   cognition   .   investigated
    5. in   Put   them   situations   aware   .   dogs   make   that
    6. respond   to   commands   from   Dogs   owners   .   had   to
    7. said   showed   awareness   .   of   sense   a   Researchers   this
    8. one's   Hold   body   own   mind   .   about   in   information
    9. objects   in   other   world   .   to   the   In   relation
    10. blocks  building  One   fundamental   self-representation   .   of   of   the

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    Have you ever wandered / wondered what animals think about? A team of scientists explored this question at / by investigating whether dogs have self-awareness. Researchers from a university in Hungary set in / out to determine whether canines have a sensory / sense of self and of body awareness. Researcher Peter Pongracz explained / explain why his team conducted the study. He said: "Self-awareness is a rather poor / poorly investigated area of dog cognition / recognition." He added: "Body awareness is a mental capacity to organize someone's action by taking / take in consideration their own body exists." His test put dogs on / in situations that would make them aware of their body position. The study is published / publication in the journal "Scientific Reports".

    The scientists conducted tests in / on 54 dogs. The dogs had to response / respond to commands from their owners. Researchers attached a toy to a mat and asked the dog to give the toy to its / their owner. The dog had to understand it would be unable to take the toy to its owner unless / rather it got off the mat first / fast. Many of the dogs understood the issue and got off the mat to replete / complete the task. The researchers said this showed a sense of body awareness. They wrote what / that body awareness is, "the ability to fold / hold information about one's own body in mind, as an explicit object, in relation to / of other objects in the world". They said this is "one of the fundamental building blocks of self-representation" and that the dogs in the tests exhibited / inhibited this.

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    H_v_  y__  _v_r  w_nd_r_d  wh_t  _n_m_ls  th_nk  _b__t?  _  t__m  _f  sc__nt_sts  _xpl_r_d  th_s  q__st__n  by  _nv_st_g_t_ng  wh_th_r  d_gs  h_v_  s_lf-_w_r_n_ss.  R_s__rch_rs  fr_m  _  _n_v_rs_ty  _n  H_ng_ry  s_t  __t  t_  d_t_rm_n_  wh_th_r  c_n_n_s  h_v_  _  s_ns_  _f  s_lf  _nd  _f  b_dy  _w_r_n_ss.  R_s__rch_r  P_t_r  P_ngr_cz  _xpl__n_d  why  h_s  t__m  c_nd_ct_d  th_  st_dy.  H_  s__d:  "S_lf-_w_r_n_ss  _s  _  r_th_r  p__rly  _nv_st_g_t_d  _r__  _f  d_g  c_gn_t__n."  H_  _dd_d:  "B_dy  _w_r_n_ss  _s  _  m_nt_l  c_p_c_ty  t_  _rg_n_z_  s_m__n_'s  _ct__n  by  t_k_ng  _n  c_ns_d_r_t__n  th__r  _wn  b_dy  _x_sts."  H_s  t_st  p_t  d_gs  _n  s_t__t__ns  th_t  w__ld  m_k_  th_m  _w_r_  _f  th__r  b_dy  p_s_t__n.  Th_  st_dy  _s  p_bl_sh_d  _n  th_  j__rn_l  "Sc__nt_f_c  R_p_rts".

    Th_  sc__nt_sts  c_nd_ct_d  t_sts  _n  54  d_gs.  Th_  d_gs  h_d  t_  r_sp_nd  t_  c_mm_nds  fr_m  th__r  _wn_rs.  R_s__rch_rs  _tt_ch_d  _  t_y  t_  _  m_t  _nd  _sk_d  th_  d_g  t_  g_v_  th_  t_y  _t_  _wn_r.  Th_  d_g  h_d  t_  _nd_rst_nd  _t   w__ld  b_  _n_bl_  t_  t_k_  th_  t_y  t_  _ts  _wn_r  _nl_ss  _t  g_t  _ff  th_  m_t  f_rst.  M_ny  _f  th_  d_gs  _nd_rst__d  th_  _ss__  _nd  g_t  _ff  th_  m_t  t_  c_mpl_t_  th_  t_sk.  Th_  r_s__rch_rs  s__d  th_s  sh_w_d  _  s_ns_  _f  b_dy  _w_r_n_ss.  Th_y  wr_t_  th_t  b_dy  _w_r_n_ss  _s,  "th_  _b_l_ty  t_  h_ld  _nf_rm_t__n  _b__t  _n_'s  _wn  b_dy  _n  m_nd,  _s  _n  _xpl_c_t  _bj_ct,  _n  r_l_t__n  t_  _th_r  _bj_cts  _n  th_  w_rld".  Th_y  s__d  th_s  _s  "_n_  _f  th_  f_nd_m_nt_l  b__ld_ng  bl_cks  _f  s_lf-r_pr_s_nt_t__n"  _nd  th_t  th_  d_gs  _n  th_  t_sts  _xh_b_t_d  th_s.

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    have you ever wondered what animals think about a team of scientists explored this question by investigating whether dogs have selfawareness researchers from a university in hungary set out to determine whether canines have a sense of self and of body awareness researcher peter pongracz explained why his team conducted the study he said selfawareness is a rather poorly investigated area of dog cognition he added body awareness is a mental capacity to organize someones action by taking in consideration their own body exists his test put dogs in situations that would make them aware of their body position the study is published in the journal scientific reports

    the scientists conducted tests on 54 dogs the dogs had to respond to commands from their owners researchers attached a toy to a mat and asked the dog to give the toy to its owner the dog had to understand it would be unable to take the toy to its owner unless it got off the mat first many of the dogs understood the issue and got off the mat to complete the task the researchers said this showed a sense of body awareness they wrote that body awareness is the ability to hold information about ones own body in mind as an explicit object in relation to other objects in the world they said this is one of the fundamental building blocks of selfrepresentation and that the dogs in the tests exhibited this

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    Haveyoueverwonderedwhatanimalsthinkabout?Ateamofscientistse
    xploredthisquestionbyinvestigatingwhetherdogshaveself-awaren
    ess.ResearchersfromauniversityinHungarysetouttodeterminewhet
    hercanineshaveasenseofselfandofbodyawareness.ResearcherPeter
    Pongraczexplainedwhyhisteamconductedthestudy.Hesaid:"Self-a
    warenessisaratherpoorlyinvestigatedareaofdogcognition."Headded
    :"Bodyawarenessisamentalcapacitytoorganizesomeone'sactionbyt
    akinginconsiderationtheirownbodyexists."Histestputdogsinsituatio
    nsthatwouldmakethemawareoftheirbodyposition.Thestudyispublis
    hedinthejournal"ScientificReports".Thescientistsconductedtestson
    54dogs.Thedogshadtorespondtocommandsfromtheirowners.Resea
    rchersattachedatoytoamatandaskedthedogtogivethetoytoitsowner
    .Thedoghadtounderstanditwouldbeunabletotakethetoytoitsown
    erunlessitgotoffthematfirst.Manyofthedogsunderstoodtheissueand
    gotoffthemattocompletethetask.Theresearcherssaidthisshowedase
    nseofbodyawareness.Theywrotethatbodyawarenessis,"theabilityto
    holdinformationaboutone'sownbodyinmind,asanexplicitobject,inrel
    ationtootherobjectsintheworld".Theysaidthisis"oneofthefundament
    albuildingblocksofself-representation"andthatthedogsinthetestsex
    hibitedthis.

    Free writing

    Write about self-awareness for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    A dog is a "man's best friend". Discuss.

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. SELF-AWARENESS: Make a poster about self-awareness. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. MAN'S BEST FRIEND: Write a magazine article about the expression "man's best friend" and that it should be changed to "a person's best friend" (because women also love dogs). Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on self-awareness. Ask him/her three questions about it. Give him/her three of your ideas on why self-awareness is important. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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