The Reading / Listening - World's First War - Level 5

A study has led archaeologists to believe the world's first war was in Sudan. Researchers re-examined 61 skeletons from Jebel Sahaba in the Nile Valley. The skeletons are 13,400 years old. They were discovered in the 1960s. For decades, scientists believed the millennia-old humans were killed in a massacre. New research on the injuries revealed that they were killed during a longer war that took place over several years. The skeletons are now regarded as evidence of the earliest organized warfare. Furthermore, the scientists said the war was probably because of climate change.



The researchers conducted an investigation into injuries on the skeletons. They said the injuries were caused by weapons such as arrows and spears. It is likely they happened during a series of conflicts over several decades. The researchers believe rival tribes competed for food and water that were in limited supply because of dramatic changes in climate. Ice covered a lot of the Northern Hemisphere. Flooding caused major changes to the availability of farmland. A researcher said: "People had to survive these changes, which were brutal."

Try the same news story at these levels:

    World's First War - Level 4 or  World's First War - Level 6

Sources
  • https://edition.cnn.com/2021/05/27/africa/violence-war-climate-jebel-sahaba-scn/index.html
  • https://www.newscientist.com/article/2278870-earliest-known-war-was-a-repeated-conflict-in-sudan-13400-years-ago
  • https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/jebel-sahaba-0015374


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Phrase Matching

Paragraph 1

  1. Researchers re-examined
  2. The skeletons are
  3. They were discovered
  4. humans were killed in
  5. killed during a longer
  6. took place over several
  7. the earliest organized
  8. probably because
  1. a massacre
  2. in the 1960s
  3. warfare
  4. of climate change
  5. years
  6. 61 skeletons
  7. war
  8. 13,400 years old

Paragraph 2

  1. The researchers conducted
  2. the injuries were caused
  3. arrows
  4. a series of conflicts over
  5. in limited
  6. Flooding caused major
  7. the availability of
  8. People had to survive
  1. farmland
  2. several decades
  3. these changes
  4. supply
  5. an investigation
  6. by weapons
  7. changes
  8. and spears

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

A study has led archaeologists to believe the world's first war was in Sudan. Researchers re-examined (1) ___________________ Jebel Sahaba in the Nile Valley. The skeletons are 13,400 years old. They (2) ___________________ the 1960s. For decades, scientists believed (3) ___________________ humans were killed in a massacre. New research on the injuries revealed that they were killed (4) ___________________ war that took place over several years. The skeletons are now regarded (5) ___________________ the earliest organized warfare. Furthermore, the scientists said the (6) ___________________ because of climate change.

The researchers (1) ___________________ into injuries on the skeletons. They said the injuries were (2) ___________________ such as arrows and spears. It is likely they happened during a series of conflicts (3) ___________________. The researchers believe rival tribes competed for food and water that were (4) ___________________ because of dramatic changes in climate. Ice covered a lot of the Northern Hemisphere. (5) ___________________ changes to the availability of farmland. A researcher said: "People had to (6) ___________________, which were brutal."

Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

Astudyhasledarchaeologiststobelievetheworld'sfirstwarwasinSuda
n.Researchersre-examined61skeletonsfromJebelSahabaintheNil
eValley.Theskeletonsare13,400yearsold.Theywerediscoveredinthe
1960s.Fordecades,scientistsbelievedthemillennia-oldhumanswer
ekilledinamassacre.Newresearchontheinjuriesrevealedthattheywer
ekilledduringalongerwarthattookplaceoverseveralyears.Theskeleto
nsarenowregardedasevidenceoftheearliestorganizedwarfare.Furth
ermore,thescientistssaidthewarwasprobablybecauseofclimatechan
ge.Theresearchersconductedaninvestigationintoinjuriesontheskele
tons.Theysaidtheinjurieswerecausedbyweaponssuchasarrowsandspears
.Itislikelytheyhappenedduringaseriesofconflictsoverseveraldecade
s.Theresearchersbelieverivaltribescompetedforfoodandwaterthatw
ereinlimitedsupplybecauseofdramaticchangesinclimate.Icecovered
alotoftheNorthernHemisphere.Floodingcausedmajorchangestothea
vailabilityoffarmland.Aresearchersaid:"Peoplehadtosurvivethesech
anges,whichwerebrutal."

Student survey

Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

(Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

Discussion — Write your own questions

STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

(a) ________________

(b) ________________

(c) ________________

(d) ________________

(e) ________________

(f) ________________

(g) ________________

(h) ________________

STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

(i) ________________

(j) ________________

(k) ________________

(l) ________________

(m) ________________

(n) ________________

(o) ________________

(p) ________________





Free writing

Write about this topic for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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Answers

(Please check your answers against the article above.

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