The Reading / Listening - World's First War - Level 6

A new study has led archaeologists to believe that the world's first war was in Sudan. Researchers from France and the UK have re-examined 61 human skeletons from a site at Jebel Sahaba in the Nile Valley in Northern Sudan. The skeletons are 13,400 years old and were uncovered in the 1960s. For decades, scientists believed the millennia-old humans were killed in a one-off massacre. New research on injuries sustained by the early humans revealed that they were killed during a longer war that took place over several years. The skeletons are now regarded as evidence of the earliest example of organized warfare between humans. Furthermore, the war was probably triggered by climate change.



The researchers conducted a deeper investigation into injuries on the skeletons found at Jebel Sahaba. The scientists said the injuries were as a result of weapons such as arrows and spears. They were likely sustained during a series of conflicts or battles over several decades. The researchers believe conflicts arose as rival tribes competed for food and water that were in limited supply because of dramatic changes in climate 11,000 to 20,000 years ago. At this time, ice covered a lot of the Northern Hemisphere. This caused flooding and major changes to the availability of farmland. A researcher said: "These changes were not gradual at all. People had to survive these changes, which were brutal."

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    World's First War - Level 4  or  World's First War - Level 5

Sources
  • https://edition.cnn.com/2021/05/27/africa/violence-war-climate-jebel-sahaba-scn/index.html
  • https://www.newscientist.com/article/2278870-earliest-known-war-was-a-repeated-conflict-in-sudan-13400-years-ago
  • https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/jebel-sahaba-0015374


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. WAR: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about war. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       study / archaeologists / war / skeletons / valley / massacre / humans / evidence /
       investigation / weapons / arrows / conflicts / food / water / changes / climate
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. PEACE: Students A strongly believe there will be peace across the world one day; Students B strongly believe this will never happen. Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. CURRENT CONFLICTS: What do you know about these current conflicts? How can they be resolved? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.


Conflict

What We Know

How It Can Be Resolved

Afghanistan

 

 

Yemen

 

 

Syria

 

 

Tigray

 

 

War on drugs

 

 

War on terror

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. SKELETON: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "skeleton". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. ANCIENT LIVING: Rank these with your partner. Put the best things about ancient life at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • Cave life
  • Food
  • No traffic
  • Family
  • Daily exercise
  • Farming
  • No 9-to-5
  • No Internet

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. archaeologist a. Continuing for an extended period or without interruption.
      2. skeleton b. Periods of a thousand years.
      3. millennia c. An internal or external framework of bone, cartilage, or other rigid material supporting or containing the body of an animal.
      4. massacre d. Caused an event or situation to happen or exist.
      5. sustained e. A person who studies human history and prehistory through digging up sites.
      6. evidence f. A random and brutal slaughter of people.
      7. triggered g. The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true.

    Paragraph 2

      8. investigation h. A long armed struggle.
      9. conflict i. An overflowing of a large amount of water beyond its normal area, especially over what is normally dry land.
      10. rival j. Savagely violent.
      11. tribe k. A person or thing competing with another for the same objective or for superiority in the same field of activity.
      12. flooding l. Taking place or progressing slowly or by degrees.
      13. gradual m. A community or group of people linked by social, economic, religious, or blood ties.
      14. brutal n. The action of looking into something or someone, usually as part of research.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. The world's very first war was between Sudan and Egypt.     T / F
  2. Archaeologists did research on 61 skeletons found in the 1960s.     T / F
  3. Scientists once believed the ancients humans died in a single massacre.  T / F
  4. Scientists said the ancient war was started by changes in the climate.     T / F
  5. Scientists said the ancient humans were clubbed to death.     T / F
  6. Rival tribes competed with each other over money and gold.     T / F
  7. The article says at the time of the war, ice covered much of the Equator. T / F
  8. A researcher said the changes in climate 20,000 years ago were gradual. T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. believe
  2. massacre
  3. revealed
  4. evidence
  5. triggered
  6. conducted
  7. sustained
  8. rival
  9. gradual
  10. brutal
  1. competing
  2. proof
  3. savage
  4. set off
  5. slaughter
  6. endured
  7. slow
  8. regard as true
  9. carried out
  10. showed

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. 61 human skeletons from a site
  2. killed in a one-
  3. a longer war that took
  4. the earliest example
  5. the war was probably triggered
  6. researchers conducted
  7. the injuries were as
  8. sustained during a series
  9. rival tribes
  10. major changes to the
  1. a result of weapons
  2. of organized warfare
  3. availability of farmland
  4. a deeper investigation
  5. at Jebel Sahaba
  6. place over several years
  7. competed for food
  8. by climate change
  9. of conflicts or battles
  10. off massacre

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
regarded
massacre
site
warfare
led
triggered
uncovered
revealed

A new study has (1) _____________________ archaeologists to believe that the world's first war was in Sudan. Researchers from France and the UK have re-examined 61 human skeletons from a (2) _____________________ at Jebel Sahaba in the Nile Valley in Northern Sudan. The skeletons are 13,400 years old and were (3) _____________________ in the 1960s. For decades, scientists believed the millennia-old humans were killed in a one-off (4) _____________________. New research on injuries sustained by the early humans (5) _____________________ that they were killed during a longer war that took place over several years. The skeletons are now (6) _____________________ as evidence of the earliest example of organized (7) _____________________ between humans. Furthermore, the war was probably (8) _____________________ by climate change.

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
result
gradual
covered
several
brutal
deeper
flooding
rival

The researchers conducted a (9) _____________________ investigation into injuries on the skeletons found at Jebel Sahaba. The scientists said the injuries were as a (10) _____________________ of weapons such as arrows and spears. They were likely sustained during a series of conflicts or battles over (11) _____________________ decades. The researchers believe conflicts arose as (12) _____________________ tribes competed for food and water that were in limited supply because of dramatic changes in climate 11,000 to 20,000 years ago. At this time, ice (12) _____________________ a lot of the Northern Hemisphere. This caused (14) _____________________ and major changes to the availability of farmland. A researcher said: "These changes were not (15) _____________________ at all. People had to survive these changes, which were (16) _____________________."

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)  Researchers from France and the UK have re-examined ______
     a.  61 human skeleton
     b.  61 human skeletons
     c.  61 humane skeletons
     d.  61 humanly skeletons
2)  scientists believed the millennia-old humans were killed in a ______
     a.  one-oft massacre
     b.  one-off massacre
     c.  once-off massacre
     d.  on-off massacre
3)  New research on injuries sustained by the early ______
     a.  humans revelled that
     b.  humans bevelled that
     c.  humans revealed that
     d.  humans levelled that
4)  now regarded as evidence of the earliest example ______
     a.  of organized wharf fair
     b.  of organized wharf air
     c.  of organized war far
     d.  of organized warfare
5)  Furthermore, the war was probably triggered ______
     a.  by climate change
     b.  buy climate change
     c.  bye climate change
     d.  bike climate change

6)  The researchers conducted a deeper investigation ______
     a.  into injurious
     b.  into injuries
     c.  into injury
     d.  into in juries
7)  scientists said the injuries were as a result of weapons ______
     a.  such was arrows
     b.  such has arrows
     c.  such as arrows
     d.  such haste arrows
8)  The researchers believe conflicts arose ______
     a.  as rival tribes
     b.  as revel tribes
     c.  as libel tribes
     d.  as level tribes
9)  This caused flooding and major changes to the ______
     a.  avail ability of farmland
     b.  avails ability of farmland
     c.  avail a bill of tea of farmland
     d.  availability of farmland
10)  People had to survive these changes, ______
     a.  which was brutal
     b.  which were brutally
     c.  which were brutality
     d.  which were brew tall

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

A new (1) ____________________ archaeologists to believe that the world's first war was in Sudan. Researchers from France and the UK have re-examined 61 (2) ____________________ a site at Jebel Sahaba in the Nile Valley in Northern Sudan. The skeletons are 13,400 years old and were (3) ____________________ 1960s. For decades, scientists believed the millennia-old humans were killed in a (4) ____________________. New research on injuries sustained by the early humans revealed that they were killed during a longer war that took place (5) ____________________. The skeletons are now regarded as evidence of the earliest example of organized warfare between humans. Furthermore, the war was (6) ____________________ climate change.

The researchers (7) ____________________ investigation into injuries on the skeletons found at Jebel Sahaba. The scientists said the injuries were as a (8) ____________________ such as arrows and spears. They were likely sustained during a series of conflicts or battles (9) ____________________. The researchers believe conflicts arose as rival tribes competed for food and water that were in limited supply because (10) ____________________ in climate 11,000 to 20,000 years ago. At this time, ice covered a lot of the Northern Hemisphere. This (11) ____________________ major changes to the availability of farmland. A researcher said: "These changes were not gradual at all. People had to (12) ____________________, which were brutal."

Comprehension questions

  1. Where are the researchers from who conducted this research?
  2. When were the skeletons first uncovered?
  3. How many massacres did scientists once believe killed the people?
  4. How long do scientists believe a war was?
  5. What do scientists regard the skeletons as being the earliest example of?
  6. What kind of weapons resulted in the death of the ancient people?
  7. Over what period of time do scientists think battles happened?
  8. Who did researchers say competed for food and water?
  9. What does the article say covered the Northern Hemisphere?
  10. What did a researcher say the changes in climate were?




Multiple choice quiz

1) Where are the researchers from who conducted this research?
a) Sudan and Egypt
b) Japan and Korea
c) France and the UK
d) Argentina and Paraguay
2) When were the skeletons first uncovered?
a) in the 1960s
b) in the 1600s
c) in the 1690s
d) in 1600
3) How many massacres did scientists once believe killed the people?
a) one
b) two
c) three
d) four
4) How long do scientists believe a war was?
a) 28 years
b) several years
c) a decade or two
d) forever
5) What do scientists regard the skeletons as being the earliest example of?
a) anatomy
b) humans fighting
c) Neanderthals
d) organized warfare

6) What kind of weapons resulted in the death of the ancient people?
a) clubs and slings
b) arrows and spears
c) arrows and clubs
d) clubs and spears
7) Over what period of time do scientists think battles happened?
a) several decades
b) several generations
c) a century of two
d) several centuries
8) Who did researchers say competed for food and water?
a) ancient chefs
b) presidents
c) rival tribes
d) people and food
9) What does the article say covered the Northern Hemisphere?
a) trees
b) dangerous predators
c) floodwater
d) ice

10) What did a researcher say the changes in climate were?
a) brutal
b) quick
c) warm
d) cool

Role play

Role  A – Cave Life
You think cave life was the best thing about live 10,000 years ago. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the worst of these (and why): no traffic, daily exercise or food.

Role  B – No Traffic
You think no traffic was the best thing about live 10,000 years ago. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the worst of these (and why): cave life, daily exercise or food.

Role  C – Daily Exercise
You think daily exercise was the best thing about live 10,000 years ago. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the worst of these (and why): no traffic, cave life or food.

Role  D – Food
You think food was the best thing about live 10,000 years ago. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the worst of these (and why): no traffic, daily exercise or cave life.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'war'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'world'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • study
    • site
    • decades
    • massacre
    • several
    • triggered
    • deeper
    • result
    • rival
    • time
    • major
    • survive




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - World's First War

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'war'?
    3. What do you know about Sudan?
    4. What do you think about archaeology?
    5. What do you know about how humans lived 13,000 years ago?
    6. Why do humans go to war so often?
    7. What wars are going on at the moment?
    8. What will it take to end war forever?
    9. What would war have looked like 13,000 years ago?
    10. What triggers wars nowadays?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'world'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. Would you like to be an archaeologist?
    5. How brutal would war have been thousands of years ago?
    6. Will there be water wars in the future?
    7. What was the worst war ever?
    8. How might climate change trigger wars in the future?
    9. In what ways might life have been better 13,000 years ago?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the archaeologists?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    A new study has led archaeologists to (1) ____ that the world's first war was in Sudan. Researchers from France and the UK have re-examined 61 (2) ____ skeletons from a site at Jebel Sahaba in the Nile Valley in Northern Sudan. The skeletons are 13,400 years old and were (3) ____ in the 1960s. For decades, scientists believed the millennia-old humans were killed in a one-off (4) ____. New research on injuries sustained by the early humans revealed that they were killed during a longer war that took place over several years. The skeletons are now regarded (5) ____ evidence of the earliest example of organized warfare between humans. Furthermore, the war was probably triggered (6) ____ climate change.

    The researchers conducted a deeper investigation (7) ____ injuries on the skeletons found at Jebel Sahaba. The scientists said the injuries were as a result of weapons such as arrows and spears. They were (8) ____ sustained during a series of conflicts or battles over several decades. The researchers believe conflicts (9) ____ as rival tribes competed for food and water that were (10) ____ limited supply because of dramatic changes in climate 11,000 to 20,000 years ago. At this time, ice covered a lot of the Northern Hemisphere. This caused flooding and major changes to the (11) ____ of farmland. A researcher said: "These changes were not gradual at all. People had to survive these changes, which were (12) ____."

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    (a)     believes     (b)     belief     (c)     believer     (d)     believe    
    (a)     humanity     (b)     humane     (c)     humanly     (d)     human    
    (a)     unveiled     (b)     uncovered     (c)     unfettered     (d)     unflattering    
    (a)     mascara     (b)     masculine     (c)     massacre     (d)     mascarpone    
    (a)     as     (b)     was     (c)     is     (d)     has    
    (a)     by     (b)     of     (c)     at     (d)     to    
    (a)     unto     (b)     up to     (c)     as to     (d)     into    
    (a)     likely     (b)     likelihood     (c)     liking     (d)     likes    
    (a)     arouse     (b)     arose     (c)     arise     (d)     arrest    
    (a)     on     (b)     up     (c)     in     (d)     as     
    (a)     photosynthesis     (b)     pesticide     (c)     availability     (d)     patent    
    (a)     lovely     (b)     brutal     (c)     gentile     (d)     ingratiating

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. led socrsotgheaila to believe that
    2. examined 61 human ktnsloees
    3. killed in a one-off arssemac
    4. injuries suteindas by the early humans
    5. now regarded as eicdvnee
    6. probably retgdrgei by climate change

    Paragraph 2

    1. changes, which were rbtlua
    2. enopaws such as arrows
    3. sdtuiasen during a series of conflicts
    4. rival btsire competed for food
    5. ice covered a lot of the Northern hiseHepemr
    6. These changes were not luraagd at all

    Put the text back together

    (...)  The researchers conducted a deeper investigation into injuries on the skeletons found at Jebel Sahaba. The scientists
    (...)  this time, ice covered a lot of the Northern Hemisphere. This caused flooding and
    (...)  on injuries sustained by the early humans revealed that they were killed during a longer
    (...)  example of organized warfare between humans. Furthermore, the war was probably triggered by climate change.
    (...)  war that took place over several years. The skeletons are now regarded as evidence of the earliest
    (...)  said the injuries were as a result of weapons such as arrows and spears. They were likely sustained during a series
    (...)  of conflicts or battles over several decades. The researchers believe conflicts arose as rival
    (...)  major changes to the availability of farmland. A researcher said: "These changes were
    (...)  in Northern Sudan. The skeletons are 13,400 years old and were uncovered in the 1960s. For decades,
    (...)  scientists believed the millennia-old humans were killed in a one-off massacre. New research
    1  ) A new study has led archaeologists to believe that the world's first war was in Sudan. Researchers
    (...)  from France and the UK have re-examined 61 human skeletons from a site at Jebel Sahaba in the Nile Valley
    (...)  not gradual at all. People had to survive these changes, which were brutal."
    (...)  tribes competed for food and water that were in limited supply because of dramatic changes in climate 11,000 to 20,000 years ago. At

    Put the words in the right order

    1. world's   Believe   was   first   in   war   Sudan   .   the
    2. a   one-off   killed   were   humans   The   in   massacre   .
    3. over   A   several   war   years   .   place   took   longer
    4. skeletons   as   are   evidence   .   now   regarded   The
    5. was   triggered   war   by   change   .   The   climate   probably
    6. a   researchers  investigation  conducted  deeper   into   The   injuries  .
    7. were   a   conflicts   .   during   They   series   of   sustained
    8. rival   for   as   arose   tribes   food   .   competed   Conflicts
    9. the   Major   of   farmland   .   changes   availability   to
    10. had   brutal   .   People   which   changes   were   to   survive

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    A new study has led archaeologists to belief / believe that the world's first war was in Sudan. Researchers from France and the UK have re-examined 61 human / humane skeletons from a site at Jebel Sahaba in the Nile Valley in Northern Sudan. The skeletons are 13,400 years old and were uncovered in / on the 1960s. For decadence / decades, scientists believed the millennia-old humans were killed on / in a one-off massacre. New research on injuries sustained / suspended by the early humans revealed that / what they were killed during a longer war that took place over sever / several years. The skeletons are now regarded has / as evidence of the earliest example of organized warfare between humans. Furthermore, the war was probably triggered / gunned by climate change.

    The researchers conducive / conducted a deeper investigation onto / into injuries on the skeletons found at Jebel Sahaba. The scientists said the injuries were as a / to result of weapons such was / as arrows and spears. They were likely sustained during a series of conflicts or battles over / under several decades. The researchers believe conflicts arose as revel / rival tribes competed for food and water that were at / in limited supply because of dramatic changes in / on climate 11,000 to 20,000 years ago. At this time, ice covered a lot of the Northern Hemisphere. This caused flooding and major changes to the available / availability of farmland. A researcher said: "These changes were not gradual at all. People had to survive these changes, which were brutal / brutally."

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    _  n_w  st_dy  h_s  l_d  _rch___l_g_sts  t_  b_l__v_  th_t  th_  w_rld's  f_rst  w_r  w_s  _n  S_d_n.  R_s__rch_rs  fr_m  Fr_nc_  _nd  th_  _K  h_v_  r_-_x_m_n_d  61  h_m_n  sk_l_t_ns  fr_m  _  s_t_  _t  J_b_l  S_h_b_  _n  th_  N_l_  V_ll_y  _n  N_rth_rn  S_d_n.  Th_  sk_l_t_ns  _r_  13,400  y__rs  _ld  _nd  w_r_  _nc_v_r_d  _n  th_  1960s.  F_r  d_c_d_s,  sc__nt_sts  b_l__v_d  th_  m_ll_nn__-_ld  h_m_ns  w_r_  k_ll_d  _n  _  _n_-_ff  m_ss_cr_.  N_w  r_s__rch  _n  _nj_r__s  s_st__n_d  by  th_  __rly  h_m_ns  r_v__l_d  th_t  th_y  w_r_  k_ll_d  d_r_ng  _  l_ng_r  w_r  th_t  t__k  pl_c_  _v_r  s_v_r_l  y__rs.  Th_  sk_l_t_ns  _r_  n_w  r_g_rd_d  _s  _v_d_nc_  _f  th_  __rl__st  _x_mpl_  _f  _rg_n_z_d  w_rf_r_  b_tw__n  h_m_ns.  F_rth_rm_r_,  th_  w_r  w_s  pr_b_bly  tr_gg_r_d  by  cl_m_t_  ch_ng_.

    Th_  r_s__rch_rs  c_nd_ct_d  _  d__p_r  _nv_st_g_t__n  _nt_  _nj_r__s  _n  th_  sk_l_t_ns  f__nd  _t  J_b_l  S_h_b_.  Th_  sc__nt_sts  s__d  th_  _nj_r__s  w_r_  _s  _  r_s_lt  _f  w__p_ns  s_ch  _s  _rr_ws  _nd  sp__rs.  Th_y  w_r_  l_k_ly  s_st__n_d  d_r_ng  _  s_r__s  _f  c_nfl_cts  _r  b_ttl_s  _v_r  s_v_r_l  d_c_d_s.  Th_  r_s__rch_rs  b_l__v_  c_nfl_cts  _r_s_  _s  r_v_l  tr_b_s  c_mp_t_d  f_r  f__d  _nd  w_t_r  th_t  w_r_  _n  l_m_t_d  s_pply  b_c__s_  _f  dr_m_t_c  ch_ng_s  _n  cl_m_t_  11,000  t_  20,000  y__rs  _g_.  _t  th_s  t_m_,  _c_  c_v_r_d  _  l_t  _f  th_  N_rth_rn  H_m_sph_r_.  Th_s  c__s_d  fl__d_ng  _nd  m_j_r  ch_ng_s  t_  th_  _v__l_b_l_ty  _f  f_rml_nd.  _  r_s__rch_r  s__d:  "Th_s_  ch_ng_s  w_r_  n_t  gr_d__l  _t  _ll.  P__pl_  h_d  t_  s_rv_v_  th_s_  ch_ng_s,  wh_ch  w_r_  br_t_l."

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    a new study has led archaeologists to believe that the worlds first war was in sudan researchers from france and the uk have reexamined 61 human skeletons from a site at jebel sahaba in the nile valley in northern sudan the skeletons are 13400 years old and were uncovered in the 1960s for decades scientists believed the millenniaold humans were killed in a oneoff massacre new research on injuries sustained by the early humans revealed that they were killed during a longer war that took place over several years the skeletons are now regarded as evidence of the earliest example of organized warfare between humans furthermore the war was probably triggered by climate change

    the researchers conducted a deeper investigation into injuries on the skeletons found at jebel sahaba the scientists said the injuries were as a result of weapons such as arrows and spears they were likely sustained during a series of conflicts or battles over several decades the researchers believe conflicts arose as rival tribes competed for food and water that were in limited supply because of dramatic changes in climate 11000 to 20000 years ago at this time ice covered a lot of the northern hemisphere this caused flooding and major changes to the availability of farmland a researcher said these changes were not gradual at all people had to survive these changes which were brutal

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    Anewstudyhasledarchaeologiststobelievethattheworld'sfirstwarwas
    inSudan.ResearchersfromFranceandtheUKhavere-examined61hu
    manskeletonsfromasiteatJebelSahabaintheNileValleyinNorthernSu
    dan.Theskeletonsare13,400yearsoldandwereuncoveredinthe1960s
    .Fordecades,scientistsbelievedthemillennia-oldhumanswerekilledi
    naone-offmassacre.Newresearchoninjuriessustainedbytheearlyh
    umansrevealedthattheywerekilledduringalongerwarthattookplaceo
    verseveralyears.Theskeletonsarenowregardedasevidenceoftheearli
    estexampleoforganizedwarfarebetweenhumans.Furthermore,thew
    arwasprobablytriggeredbyclimatechange.Theresearchersconducte
    dadeeperinvestigationintoinjuriesontheskeletonsfoundatJebelSaha
    ba.Thescientistssaidtheinjurieswereasaresultofweaponssuchasarro
    wsandspears.Theywerelikelysustainedduringaseriesofconflictsorba
    ttlesoverseveraldecades.Theresearchersbelieveconflictsaroseasriv
    altribescompetedforfoodandwaterthatwereinlimitedsupplybecause
    ofdramaticchangesinclimate11,000to20,000yearsago.Atthistime,ic
    ecoveredalotoftheNorthernHemisphere.Thiscausedfloodingandmaj
    orchangestotheavailabilityoffarmland.Aresearchersaid:"Thesechan
    geswerenotgradualatall.Peoplehadtosurvivethesechanges,whichwe
    rebrutal."

    Free writing

    Write about first ever war for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    Archaeology is a very important subject to study.  Discuss.

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. WAR: Make a poster about war. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. WEAPONS: Write a magazine article about ending the manufacture of all weapons of war. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on war. Ask him/her three questions about it. Give him/her three of your ideas on how to avoid it. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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