Word Pairs


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There is a newly-found [menace / manacle] on the roads that could be harming our health - brake pads from road [vehicular / vehicles] . Scientists have discovered that [toxicity / toxic] dust and metal particles from worn-out brake pads could have the same harmful [impact / compact] on our bodies as diesel emissions. King's College London found that fine [dusty / dust] released when a vehicle brakes could cause a [numeral / number] of health problems. These include an inflammation of the lungs, reduced immunity, an increased risk of [perspire / respiratory] problems, and serious infections like bronchitis or pneumonia. It is [estimated / estimating] that 93 per cent of particulate pollution from traffic comes from [sources / sauces] such as tyre, [clutch / grab] and brake wear, and road dust.

The scientists say brake dust could be the cause of a condition they have [dubbed / dabbed] "London throat". Sufferers are the city [dwindles / dwellers] who continually experience [runny / run] noses and irritating coughs and colds. These could be caused by people [impaling / inhaling] the brake dust. Metal particles coat the lungs and prevent cells in our immune system from [clearing / cleaving] harmful bacteria. Researcher Dr Ian Mudway said dust from the various sources [of / to] friction within vehicles [casts / nets] doubt on motor industry claims [of / on] zero-emission cars. He said: "There is no such [stuff / thing] as a zero-emission vehicle. As regulations to reduce exhaust emissions kick in, the contribution from sources such as brake dust are [likely / likened] to become more significant."

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