The Reading / Listening - Brake Pads - Level 6

There is a newly-found menace on the roads that could be harming our health - brake pads from road vehicles. Scientists have discovered that toxic dust and metal particles from worn-out brake pads could have the same harmful impact on our bodies as diesel emissions. King's College London found that fine dust released when a vehicle brakes could cause a number of health problems. These include an inflammation of the lungs, reduced immunity, an increased risk of respiratory problems, and serious infections like bronchitis or pneumonia. It is estimated that 93 per cent of particulate pollution from traffic comes from sources such as tyres, clutches and brake wear, and road dust.



The scientists say brake dust could be the cause of a condition they have dubbed "London throat". Sufferers are the city dwellers who continually experience runny noses and irritating coughs and colds. These could be caused by people inhaling the brake dust. Metal particles coat the lungs and prevent cells in our immune system from clearing harmful bacteria. Researcher Dr Ian Mudway said dust from the various sources of friction within vehicles casts doubt on motor industry claims of zero-emission cars. He said: "There is no such thing as a zero-emission vehicle. As regulations to reduce exhaust emissions kick in, the contribution from [sources such as brake dust] are likely to become more significant."

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Brake Pads - Level 4  or  Brake Pads - Level 5

Sources
  • https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-london-51049326
  • https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2020/mt/c9mt00253g?page=search
  • https://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2020/01/09/do-have-london-throat-scrapping-speed-bumps-could-help/


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. OUR IMMUNE SYSTEM: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about our immune system. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       menace / health / brake pads / vehicles / toxic / metal / health problems / traffic /
       scientists / throat / runny noses / lungs / immune system / friction / motor industry
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. NO TRAFFIC: Students A strongly believe that no traffic should be allowed in city centres; Students B strongly believe the opposite.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. ROAD MENACES: How bad are these road menaces? What can we do about them? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

How Bad?

What Can We Do?

Pollution

 

 

Fog

 

 

Pot holes

 

 

Bad drivers

 

 

Black ice

 

 

Pedestrians

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. ROAD: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "road". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. NO CARS: Rank these with your partner. Put the best benefits of having no cars at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • Fewer accidents
  • Less pollution
  • Cleaner towns
  • Relaxing shopping
  • Better public transport
  • Less expensive
  • Health benefits
  • Space for more homes

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. menace a. The state of a person, animal or plant being affected with a disease-causing organism.
      2. vehicle b. A person or thing that is likely to cause harm; a threat or danger.
      3. toxic c. The production and release of something, especially gas or radiation.
      4. particle d. A thing used for transporting people or goods, especially on land, such as a car, truck, or cart.
      5. emissions e. A tiny, tiny, tiny bit of matter.
      6. inflammation f. Poisonous.
      7. infection g. A physical condition where part of the body becomes red, swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection.

    Paragraph 2

      8. dubbed h. Gave an unofficial name or nickname to someone or something.
      9. dweller i. Become activated; come into effect.
      10. irritating j. A person or animal that lives in or at a specified place.
      11. coat k. The action of one surface or object rubbing against another.
      12. inhaling l. Causing annoyance to a part of the body.
      13. friction m. Form a covering to something.
      14. kick in n. Breathing in air, gas, smoke, etc.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. The article said new brake pads cause the most harm.     T / F
  2. A scientist said brake pad dust can cause things like pneumonia.     T / F
  3. Around 93% of traffic emissions comes from car exhausts.     T / F
  4. The clutches in cars also cause pollution.     T / F
  5. Scientists said brake pads could cause something called London throat.   T / F
  6. Metal particles in brake pad dust stop our immune system doing its job.  T / F
  7. A researcher said there is no such thing as zero-emission vehicles.     T / F
  8. A scientist said the brake pad dust problem is now reducing.     T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. menace
  2. toxic
  3. impact
  4. inflammation
  5. estimated
  6. dubbed
  7. irritating
  8. inhaling
  9. friction
  10. kick in
  1. reckoned
  2. swelling
  3. come into effect
  4. poisonous
  5. annoying
  6. abrasion
  7. danger
  8. named
  9. effect
  10. breathing in

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. toxic dust and metal
  2. diesel
  3. an increased risk of respiratory
  4. 93 per cent of particulate
  5. sources such as tyres, clutches
  6. brake dust could be the cause
  7. runny
  8. people inhaling
  9. casts doubt
  10. likely to become
  1. more significant
  2. pollution
  3. noses
  4. of a condition
  5. problems
  6. emissions
  7. on motor industry claims
  8. and brake wear
  9. the brake dust
  10. particles

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
particles
brakes
wear
menace
estimated
harmful
vehicles
risk

There is a newly-found (1) ____________ on the roads that could be harming our health - brake pads from road (2) ____________. Scientists have discovered that toxic dust and metal (3) ____________ from worn-out brake pads could have the same (4) ____________ impact on our bodies as diesel emissions. King's College London found that fine dust released when a vehicle (5) ____________ could cause a number of health problems. These include an inflammation of the lungs, reduced immunity, an increased (6) ____________ of respiratory problems, and serious infections like bronchitis or pneumonia. It is (7) ____________ that 93 per cent of particulate pollution from traffic comes from sources such as tyres, clutches and brake (8) ____________, and road dust.

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
inhaling
friction
dubbed
regulations
coat
likely
runny
doubt

The scientists say brake dust could be the cause of a condition they have (9) ____________ "London throat". Sufferers are the city dwellers who continually experience (10) ____________ noses and irritating coughs and colds. These could be caused by people (11) ____________ the brake dust. Metal particles (12) ____________ the lungs and prevent cells in our immune system from clearing harmful bacteria. Researcher Dr Ian Mudway said dust from the various sources of (13) ____________ within vehicles casts (14) ____________ on motor industry claims of zero-emission cars. He said: "There is no such thing as a zero-emission vehicle. As (15) ____________ to reduce exhaust emissions kick in, the contribution from [sources such as brake dust] are (16) ____________ to become more significant."

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)  There is a newly-found menace on the roads that could be ______
     a.  harm in our health
     b.  harming our healthy
     c.  harm in a health
     d.  harming our health
2)  Scientists have discovered that toxic dust and ______
     a.  metal part icicles
     b.  metal party calls
     c.  metal particles
     d.  meat all particle
3)  King's College London found that ______
     a.  fine dust
     b.  fine dusts
     c.  refine dust
     d.  find dust
4)  include an inflammation of the lungs, reduced immunity, an ______
     a.  ink crease risks
     b.  in creased risk
     c.  increased risk
     d.  ink creased risk
5)  from traffic comes from sources such as tyres, clutches ______
     a.  and brake where
     b.  and brake wear
     c.  and brake wore
     d.  and brake weir

6)  could be the cause of a condition they have ______ throat
     a.  dubbed London
     b.  rubbed London
     c.  clubbed London
     d.  daubed London
7)  city dwellers who continually experience runny noses and ______
     a.  irritate tin coughs
     b.  irritate in coughs
     c.  irritating coughs
     d.  irritatingly coughs
8)  Metal particles coat the lungs and prevent cells in our ______
     a.  immune system
     b.  commune system
     c.  a moon system
     d.  in-moon system
9)  Researcher Dr Ian Mudway said dust from the various ______
     a.  sauces of fiction
     b.  sources of friction
     c.  sour seas of fiction
     d.  saw seas of friction
10)  As regulations to reduce exhaust ______
     a.  emission kick in
     b.  remissions kick in
     c.  emissions kick in
     d.  commissions kick in

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

There is a newly-found (1) ___________________ roads that could be harming our health - brake pads from road vehicles. Scientists have discovered that toxic dust (2) ___________________ from worn-out brake pads could have the same (3) ___________________ our bodies as diesel emissions. King's College London found that (4) ___________________ when a vehicle brakes could cause a number of health problems. These include an inflammation of the lungs, reduced immunity, an increased risk of respiratory problems, (5) ___________________ like bronchitis or pneumonia. It is estimated that 93 per cent of particulate pollution from traffic comes (6) ___________________ as tyres, clutches and brake wear, and road dust.

The scientists say brake dust could be the cause of a condition (7) ___________________ "London throat". Sufferers are the city dwellers who continually experience (8) ___________________ irritating coughs and colds. These could be caused by (9) ___________________ brake dust. Metal particles coat the lungs and prevent cells in our immune system from clearing harmful bacteria. Researcher Dr Ian Mudway said dust from the various sources (10) ___________________ vehicles casts doubt on motor industry claims of zero-emission cars. He said: "There is (11) ___________________ as a zero-emission vehicle. As regulations to reduce exhaust (12) ___________________, the contribution from [sources such as brake dust] are likely to become more significant."

Comprehension questions

  1. On what kinds of things did the article say had brake pads?
  2. What university conducted this research?
  3. What did the research say could happen to the lungs?
  4. What two serious infections could brake pad dust cause?
  5. What other two parts of a car were mentioned as pollutant source?
  6. What is the name of the condition that causes runny noses?
  7. What do people do to catch coughs and colds?
  8. What did a scientist say was cast on motor industry claims?
  9. What did a scientist say there was no such thing as?
  10. What did a scientist say would kick in?




Multiple choice quiz

1) On what kinds of things did the article say had brake pads?
a) bicycles
b) trains, planes and automobiles
c) cars
d) road vehicles
2) What university conducted this research?
a) Cambridge University
b) Kings College London
c) Oxford University
d) Cardiff University
3) What did the research say could happen to the lungs?
a) they could get cancer
b) they could puncture
c) they could become inflamed
d) they could collapse
4) What two serious infections could brake pad dust cause?
a) bronchitis and pneumonia
b) emphysema and tuberculosis
c) cancer and Lyme disease
d) asthma and COPD
5) What other two parts of a car were mentioned as pollutant source?
a) wiper fluid and antifreeze
b) oil an petrol
c) tyres and clutches
d) the bonnet and boot

6) What is the name of the condition that causes runny noses?
a) London lungs
b) London throat
c) London nose
d) London disease
7) What do people do to catch coughs and colds?
a) stand in traffic for an hour
b) sneeze
c) not wear a mask
d) breathe in the brake pad dust
8) What did a scientist say was cast on motor industry claims?
a) doubt
b) nets
c) scorn
d) an evil eye
9) What did a scientist say there was no such thing as?
a) a green planet
b) UFOs
c) zero-emission cars
d) global warming

10) What did a scientist say would kick in?
a) high-octane fuel
b) regulations
c) a battery
d) a catalytic converter

Role play

Role  A – Fewer Accidents
You think fewer accidents is the best thing about having no cars. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their advantages. Also, tell the others which is the least beneficial of these (and why): less pollution, relaxing shopping or health benefits.

Role  B – Less Pollution
You think less pollution is the best thing about having no cars. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their advantages. Also, tell the others which is the least beneficial of these (and why): fewer accidents, relaxing shopping or health benefits.

Role  C – Relaxing Shopping
You think relaxing shopping is the best thing about having no cars. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their advantages. Also, tell the others which is the least beneficial of these (and why): less pollution, fewer accidents or health benefits.

Role  D – Health Benefits
You think health benefits is the best thing about having no cars. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their advantages. Also, tell the others which is the least beneficial of these (and why): less pollution, relaxing shopping or fewer accidents.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'brake'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'pad'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • newly
    • toxic
    • released
    • reduced
    • serious
    • such
    • dubbed
    • runny
    • coat
    • friction
    • such
    • likely




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - Brake Pads

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the term 'brake pad'?
    3. What menaces are there on the road?
    4. How unhealthy are roads?
    5. Will you now worry when you walk near traffic?
    6. What do you think of breathing in metal brake pad particles?
    7. What does our immune system do?
    8. How much of our 21st-century lifestyle is harming our health?
    9. Do you think we should all wear face masks on the streets?
    10. How can we reduce the need for vehicles to brake?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the term 'immune system'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. What throat problems have you had?
    5. What do you think of the name "London throat"?
    6. How do you feel about inhaling pollutants?
    7. How much damage do zero-emission cars do to the environment?
    8. Is there any friction between you and other people?
    9. Should all city centres be vehicle-free?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the researchers?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    There is a newly-found (1) ____ on the roads that could be harming our health - brake pads from road vehicles. Scientists have discovered that (2) ____ dust and metal particles from worn-out brake pads could have the same harmful impact on our bodies as diesel emissions. King's College London found that (3) ____ dust released when a vehicle brakes could cause a number of health problems. These include an inflammation of the lungs, (4) ____ immunity, an increased risk of respiratory problems, and serious (5) ____ like bronchitis or pneumonia. It is estimated that 93 per cent of particulate pollution from traffic comes from sources such as tyres, clutches and brake (6) ____, and road dust.

    The scientists say brake dust could be the cause of a condition they have (7) ____ "London throat". Sufferers are the city dwellers who continually experience (8) ____ noses and irritating coughs and colds. These could be caused by people inhaling the brake dust. Metal particles (9) ____ the lungs and prevent cells in our immune system from clearing harmful bacteria. Researcher Dr Ian Mudway said dust from the (10) ____ sources of friction within vehicles casts doubt on motor industry claims of zero-emission cars. He said: "There is no (11) ____ thing as a zero-emission vehicle. As regulations to reduce exhaust emissions (12) ____ in, the contribution from [sources such as brake dust] are likely to become more significant."

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     furnace     (b)     furnish     (c)     menace     (d)     burnish    
    2. (a)     toxic     (b)     non-toxic     (c)     auto-toxic     (d)     neuro-toxic    
    3. (a)     find     (b)     fine     (c)     fin     (d)     flint    
    4. (a)     downing     (b)     elevator     (c)     lessen     (d)     reduced    
    5. (a)     lines     (b)     symptom     (c)     infections     (d)     cures    
    6. (a)     where     (b)     wear     (c)     weir     (d)     worn    
    7. (a)     dubbed     (b)     daubed     (c)     dabbed     (d)     dibbed    
    8. (a)     run-of-the-mill     (b)     run     (c)     runner's     (d)     runny    
    9. (a)     jacket     (b)     sweater     (c)     coat     (d)     vest    
    10. (a)     varsity     (b)     vary     (c)     variety     (d)     various    
    11. (a)     so     (b)     such     (c)     really     (d)     actually    
    12. (a)     kick     (b)     boot     (c)     punt     (d)     hoof

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. a newly-found amcnee on the roads
    2. xocit dust
    3. metal iastpcelr
    4. diesel sioisesmn
    5. risk of repsroriyat problems
    6. It is steidatme that 93 per cent...

    Paragraph 2

    1. a condition they have dbbeud "London throat
    2. city lreeldws
    3. runny noses and iirnagritt coughs
    4. ininahgl the brake dust
    5. sources of trioifnc
    6. As regulations to reduce taushex...

    Put the text back together

    1  ) There is a newly-found menace on the roads that could be harming our health - brake pads from road
    (...)  infections like bronchitis or pneumonia. It is estimated that 93 per cent of particulate pollution
    (...)  The scientists say brake dust could be the cause of a condition they have dubbed "London throat". Sufferers are the city
    (...)  out brake pads could have the same harmful impact on our bodies as diesel emissions. King's College London found that fine
    (...)  harmful bacteria. Researcher Dr Ian Mudway said dust from the various sources of friction within vehicles casts
    (...)  in, the contribution from [sources such as brake dust] are likely to become more significant."
    (...)  dwellers who continually experience runny noses and irritating coughs and colds. These could be caused
    (...)  from traffic comes from sources such as tyres, clutches and brake wear, and road dust.
    (...)  thing as a zero-emission vehicle. As regulations to reduce exhaust emissions kick
    (...)  by people inhaling the brake dust. Metal particles coat the lungs and prevent cells in our immune system from clearing
    (...)  vehicles. Scientists have discovered that toxic dust and metal particles from worn-
    (...)  of the lungs, reduced immunity, an increased risk of respiratory problems, and serious
    (...)  dust released when a vehicle brakes could cause a number of health problems. These include an inflammation
    (...)  doubt on motor industry claims of zero-emission cars. He said: "There is no such

    Put the words in the right order

    1. menace   is   the   There   a   on   roads   .   newly-found
    2. worn-out   brake   Dust   and   particles   metal   pads   .   from
    3. same   on   Have   our   impact   bodies   .   harmful   the
    4. when   The   fine   released   vehicle   a   brakes   .   dust
    5. 93   per   cent   About   particulate   of   from   pollution   traffic   .
    6. throat"   .   dubbed   have   the   "London   A   condition   scientists
    7. city   noses   .   experience   who   dwellers   continually   The   runny
    8. cells   in   system   immune   Prevent   clearing   our   bacteria   .
    9. on   of   Casts   claims   zero-emission   cars   .   industry   doubt
    10. reduce   regulations   in   .   to   emissions   As   kick   exhaust

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    There is a newly-found menace / manacle on the roads that could be harming our health - brake pads from road vehicular / vehicles. Scientists have discovered that toxicity / toxic dust and metal particles from worn-out brake pads could have the same harmful impact / compact on our bodies as diesel emissions. King's College London found that fine dusty / dust released when a vehicle brakes could cause a numeral / number of health problems. These include an inflammation of the lungs, reduced immunity, an increased risk of perspire / respiratory problems, and serious infections like bronchitis or pneumonia. It is estimated / estimating that 93 per cent of particulate pollution from traffic comes from sources / sauces such as tyres, clutches / grabs and brake wear, and road dust.

    The scientists say brake dust could be the cause of a condition they have dubbed / dabbed "London throat". Sufferers are the city dwindles / dwellers who continually experience runny / run noses and irritating coughs and colds. These could be caused by people impaling / inhaling the brake dust. Metal particles coat the lungs and prevent cells in our immune system from clearing / cleaving harmful bacteria. Researcher Dr Ian Mudway said dust from the various sources of / to friction within vehicles casts / nets doubt on motor industry claims of / on zero-emission cars. He said: "There is no such stuff / thing as a zero-emission vehicle. As regulations to reduce exhaust emissions kick in, the contribution from [sources such as brake dust] are likely / likened to become more significant."

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    T h_r_ _s _ n_w l y - f__ n d m_n_c_ _n t h_ r__ d s t h_t c__ l d b_ h_r m_n g __ r h__ l t h - b r_k_ p_d s f r_m r__ d v_h_c l_s . S c__ n t_s t s h_v_ d_s c_v_r_d t h_t t_x_c d_s t _n d m_t_l p_r t_c l_s f r_m w_r n -__ t b r_k_ p_d s c__ l d h_v_ t h_ s_m_ h_r m f_l _m p_c t _n __ r b_d__ s _s d__ s_l _m_s s__ n s . K_n g ' s C_l l_g_ L_n d_n f__ n d t h_t f_n_ d_s t r_l__ s_d w h_n _ v_h_c l_ b r_k_s c__ l d c__ s_ _ n_m b_r _f h__ l t h p r_b l_m s . T h_s_ _n c l_d_ _n _n f l_m m_t__ n _f t h_ l_n g s , r_d_c_d _m m_n_t y , _n _n c r__ s_d r_s k _f r_s p_r_t_r y p r_b l_m s , _n d s_r___s _n f_c t__ n s l_k_ b r_n c h_t_s _r p n__ m_n__ . I t _s _s t_m_t_d t h_t 9 3 p_r c_n t _f p_r t_c_l_t_ p_l l_t__ n f r_m t r_f f_c c_m_s f r_m s__ r c_s s_c h _s t y r_s, c l_t c h _ s _n d b r_k_ w__ r , _n d r__ d d_s t .

    T h_ s c__ n t_s t s s_y b r_k_ d_s t c__ l d b_ t h_ c__ s_ _f _ c_n d_t__ n t h_y h_v_ d_b b_d " L_n d_n t h r__ t " . S_f f_r_r s _r_ t h_ c_t y d w_l l_r s w h_ c_n t_n__ l l y _x p_r__ n c_ r_n n y n_s_s _n d _r r_t_t_n g c__ g h s _n d c_l d s . T h_s_ c__ l d b_ c__ s_d b y p__ p l_ _n h_l_n g t h_ b r_k_ d_s t . M_t_l p_r t_c l_s c__ t t h_ l_n g s _n d p r_v_n t c_l l s _n __ r _m m_n_ s y s t_m f r_m c l__ r_n g h_r m f_l b_c t_r__ . R_s__ r c h_r D r I_n M_d w_y s__ d d_s t f r_m t h_ v_r___s s__ r c_s _f f r_c t__ n w_t h_n v_h_c l_s c_s t s d__ b t _n m_t_r _n d_s t r y c l__ m s _f z_r_-_m_s s__ n c_r s . H_ s__ d : " T h_r_ _s n_ s_c h t h_n g _s _ z_r_-_m_s s__ n v_h_c l_. A s r_g_l_t__ n s t_ r_d_c_ _x h__ s t _m_s s__ n s k_c k _n , t h_ c_n t r_b_t__ n f r_m [ s__ r c_s s_c h _s b r_k_ d_s t ] _r_ l_k_l y t_ b_c_m_ m_r_ s_g n_f_c_n t . "

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    there is a newlyfound menace on the roads that could be harming our health  brake pads from road vehicles scientists have discovered that toxic dust and metal particles from wornout brake pads could have the same harmful impact on our bodies as diesel emissions kings college london found that fine dust released when a vehicle brakes could cause a number of health problems these include an inflammation of the lungs reduced immunity an increased risk of respiratory problems and serious infections like bronchitis or pneumonia it is estimated that 93 per cent of particulate pollution from traffic comes from sources such as tyres clutches and brake wear and road dust

    the scientists say brake dust could be the cause of a condition they have dubbed london throat sufferers are the city dwellers who continually experience runny noses and irritating coughs and colds these could be caused by people inhaling the brake dust metal particles coat the lungs and prevent cells in our immune system from clearing harmful bacteria researcher dr ian mudway said dust from the various sources of friction within vehicles casts doubt on motor industry claims of zeroemission cars he said there is no such thing as a zeroemission vehicle as regulations to reduce exhaust emissions kick in the contribution from sources such as brake dust are likely to become more significant

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    Thereisanewly-foundmenaceontheroadsthatcouldbeharmingourh
    ealth-brakepadsfromroadvehicles.Scientistshavediscoveredthattox
    icdustandmetalparticlesfromworn-outbrakepadscouldhavethesa
    meharmfulimpactonourbodiesasdieselemissions.King'sCollegeLond
    onfoundthatfinedustreleasedwhenavehiclebrakescouldcauseanum
    berofhealthproblems.Theseincludeaninflammationofthelungs,redu
    cedimmunity,anincreasedriskofrespiratoryproblems,andseriousinf
    ectionslikebronchitisorpneumonia.Itisestimatedthat93percentofpa
    rticulatepollutionfromtrafficcomesfromsourcessuchastyres,clutche
    sandbrakewear,androaddust.Thescientistssaybrakedustcouldbethe
    causeofaconditiontheyhavedubbed"Londonthroat".Sufferersarethe
    citydwellerswhocontinuallyexperiencerunnynosesandirritatingcoug
    hsandcolds.Thesecouldbecausedbypeopleinhalingthebrakedust.Me
    talparticlescoatthelungsandpreventcellsinourimmunesystemfromcl
    earingharmfulbacteria.ResearcherDrIanMudwaysaiddustfromtheva
    rioussourcesoffrictionwithinvehiclescastsdoubtonmotorindustryclai
    msofzero-emissioncars.Hesaid:"Thereisnosuchthingasazero-emis
    sionvehicle.Asregulationstoreduceexhaustemissionskickin,thecontr
    ibutionfrom[sourcessuchasbrakedust]arelikelytobecomemoresignif
    icant."

    Free writing

    Write about brake pads for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    The centre of all cities should be vehicle-free to protect our health. Discuss.

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. OUR IMMUNE SYSTEM: Make a poster about our immune system. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. CITY CENTRES: Write a magazine article about banning vehicles from city centres to protect our health. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on our immune system. Ask him/her three questions about it. Give him/her three of your ideas on what we can do to make it stronger. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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