The Reading / Listening - River Nile Dam - Level 6

A dam on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia is escalating tensions in the region. African Union-led talks between Ethiopia, Egypt and Sudan over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam broke down on Monday. There are fears that the filling of the dam could lead to armed conflict. Ethiopia is constructing the dam to supply electricity to its rural areas. It is the largest hydroelectric dam in Africa and is two-thirds finished. Ethiopia has started filling the dam, which has raised alarm in Cairo. Egypt views the dam as an "existential threat" and is concerned the dam will reduce its water supplies. Most of Egypt's water comes entirely from the Nile, particularly during times of drought.



The Blue Nile originates in natural springs above Lake Tana in Ethiopia. It supplies the majority of the water for the Nile River. The Blue Nile merges with the White Nile near Khartoum in Sudan. The waterway becomes the River Nile from the point of confluence of the two rivers. Ethiopia calls the dam an "existential necessity". Taxes from Ethiopian citizens have largely paid for the dam. Ethiopia's government says the dam is essential as nearly half the country's population lacks access to electricity. Egypt has said it could share electricity with Ethiopia instead of the dam being used. An Egyptian politician said: "One nation's need for electricity is pinned to another nation's need for water."

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    River Nile Dam - Level 4  or  River Nile Dam - Level 5

Sources
  • https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/egypt-ethiopia-nile-dam-sudan-conflict-war-al-sisi-a9620041.html
  • https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02124-8
  • https://www.arabnews.com/node/1705251/middle-east


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. DAMS: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about dams. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       escalating / tensions / fears / armed / conflict / electricity / rural / existential / threat
       natural springs / waterway / necessity / citizen / half / population / dam / politician
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. WATER: Students A strongly believe the water that flows through a country belongs to that country; Students B strongly believe the opposite.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. TENSIONS: What tensions are there between countries because of these things? How could these tensions escalate? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

What Tensions Exist?

How Could They Escalate?

Water

 

 

Borders

 

 

Land

 

 

Spying

 

 

Trade

 

 

Internet

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. REGION: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "region". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. ELECTRICITY: Rank these with your partner. Put the best ways to get electricity at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • hydroelectric dams
  • wind farms
  • solar panels
  • geothermal energy
  • nuclear energy
  • coal-fired turbines
  • biofuels
  • wave power

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. escalating a. In, relating to, or characteristic of the countryside rather than the town.
      2. tension b. A very long period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a shortage of water.
      3. armed c. Becoming or causing to become more intense or serious.
      4. conflict d. A tense and troubled political or social state or relationship.
      5. rural e. A serious disagreement or argument; a battle or war.
      6. existential f. Relating to being alive or being.
      7. drought g. Involving the use of firearms or weapons.

    Paragraph 2

      8. originates h. The state of being without or not having enough of something.
      9. springs i. The fact of being required.
      10. majority j. The junction or meeting point of two rivers.
      11. confluence k. Has a specified beginning.
      12. necessity l. Attached or fastened.
      13. lack m. A place where water comes up from an underground source.
      14. pinned n. The greater number of.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. A dam on the White Nile is increasing tension in the region.     T / F
  2. Some people are worried the issue over the dam could result in war.     T / F
  3. The Ethiopian dam will be the largest hydroelectric dam in Africa.     T / F
  4. About half of Egypt's water comes from the River Nile.     T / F
  5. The source of the Blue Nile is in natural springs in Sudan.     T / F
  6. The Blue Nile merges with the White Nile near Cairo.     T / F
  7. Ethiopia's taxpayers have paid for most of the hydroelectric dam.     T / F
  8. Ethiopia said it could share its electricity with Egypt.     T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. escalating
  2. broke down
  3. conflict
  4. alarm
  5. entirely
  6. originates
  7. majority
  8. confluence
  9. essential
  10. pinned
  1. anxiety
  2. meeting
  3. bulk
  4. collapsed
  5. attached
  6. wholly
  7. increasing
  8. crucial
  9. war
  10. starts

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. A dam on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia is escalating
  2. the filling of the dam could lead to armed
  3. supply electricity to its rural
  4. Egypt views the dam as an existential
  5. particularly during times
  6. The Blue Nile originates in natural
  7. the point of confluence
  8. lacks access
  9. it could share electricity
  10. pinned to another nation's
  1. threat
  2. of the two rivers
  3. of drought
  4. springs
  5. tensions in the region
  6. need for water
  7. with Ethiopia
  8. conflict
  9. areas
  10. to electricity

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
rural
entirely
talks
drought
hydroelectric
fears
escalating
alarm

A dam on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia is (1) _____________________ tensions in the region. African Union-led (2) _____________________ between Ethiopia, Egypt and Sudan over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam broke down on Monday. There are (3) _____________________ that the filling of the dam could lead to armed conflict. Ethiopia is constructing the dam to supply electricity to its (4) _____________________ areas. It is the largest (5) _____________________ dam in Africa and is two-thirds finished. Ethiopia has started filling the dam, which has raised (6) _____________________ in Cairo. Egypt views the dam as an "existential threat" and is concerned the dam will reduce its water supplies. Most of Egypt's water comes (7) _____________________ from the Nile, particularly during times of (8) _____________________.

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
necessity
originates
pinned
merges
electricity
confluence
essential
majority

The Blue Nile (9) _____________________ in natural springs above Lake Tana in Ethiopia. It supplies the (10) _____________________ of the water for the Nile River. The Blue Nile (11) _____________________ with the White Nile near Khartoum in Sudan. The waterway becomes the River Nile from the point of (12) _____________________ of the two rivers. Ethiopia calls the dam an "existential (13) _____________________". Taxes from Ethiopian citizens have largely paid for the dam. Ethiopia's government says the dam is (14) _____________________ as nearly half the country's population lacks access to electricity. Egypt has said it could share (15) _____________________ with Ethiopia instead of the dam being used. An Egyptian politician said: "One nation's need for electricity is (16) _____________________ to another nation's need for water."

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)  A dam on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia is escalating ______ region
     a.  stations in the
     b.  ten shuns in the
     c.  pensions in the
     d.  tensions in the
2)  There are fears that the filling of the dam could lead to ______
     a.  army conflict
     b.  armies conflict
     c.  arm the conflict
     d.  armed conflict
3)  Ethiopia is constructing the dam to supply electricity to ______
     a.  is aural areas
     b.  its rural areas
     c.  its aural areas
     d.  its rural areas
4)  Egypt views the dam as an "______"
     a.  exist tension threat
     b.  exit tension threat
     c.  existential threat
     d.  exits tension threat
5)  Egypt's water comes entirely from the Nile, particularly during ______
     a.  times of drought
     b.  times of draught
     c.  times of doubt
     d.  times of debt

6)  The waterway becomes the River Nile from the ______
     a.  point of congruence
     b.  point of incongruence
     c.  point of confluence
     d.  point of con affluence
7)  Ethiopia calls the dam an "______"
     a.  existential necessitate
     b.  existential necessarily
     c.  existential necessary
     d.  existential necessity
8)  Ethiopia's government says the dam ______
     a.  is essence shall
     b.  is essence all
     c.  is essential
     d.  is sensual
9)  nearly half the country's population ______ electricity
     a.  lacks excess to
     b.  lacks access to
     c.  lack success to
     d.  luck sack cease to
10)  An Egyptian politician said: "One nation's need for electricity is ______"
     a.  pined to another
     b.  paned to another
     c.  panned to another
     d.  pinned to another

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

A dam on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia (1) ____________________ in the region. African Union-led talks between Ethiopia, Egypt and Sudan over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam broke down on Monday. There are fears that the filling of the dam could lead (2) ____________________. Ethiopia is constructing the dam to supply electricity to (3) ____________________. It is the largest hydroelectric dam in Africa and is two-thirds finished. Ethiopia has started filling the dam, which (4) ____________________ in Cairo. Egypt views the dam as an "existential threat" (5) ____________________ the dam will reduce its water supplies. Most of Egypt's water comes entirely from the Nile, particularly during (6) ____________________.

The Blue Nile (7) ____________________ springs above Lake Tana in Ethiopia. It supplies (8) ____________________ the water for the Nile River. The Blue Nile merges with the White Nile near Khartoum in Sudan. The waterway becomes the River Nile from the (9) ____________________ of the two rivers. Ethiopia calls the dam an "existential necessity". Taxes from Ethiopian (10) ____________________ paid for the dam. Ethiopia's government says the dam is essential as nearly half the country's population (11) ____________________ electricity. Egypt has said it could share electricity with Ethiopia instead of the dam being used. An Egyptian politician said: "One nation's need for electricity (12) ____________________ another nation's need for water."

Comprehension questions

  1. On what river is the hydroelectric dam being built?
  2. What is the name of the dam?
  3. What are people worried the filling of the dam could result in?
  4. What does Cairo view the dam as being?
  5. In what times is the Nile particularly important for Egypt?
  6. Where are the natural springs that are the source of the Blue Nile?
  7. Where does the Blue Nile merge with the White Nile?
  8. What does Ethiopia call the dam?
  9. How much of Ethiopia is without electricity?
  10. What did a politician say one nation's need for electricity is pinned to?




Multiple choice quiz

1)  On what river is the hydroelectric dam being built?
a) the White Nile
b) the Blue Nile
c) the Red Nile
d) the Black Nile
2) What is the name of the dam?
a) Ethiopian Grand Renaissance Dam
b) Ethiopian Renaissance Grand Dam
c) Grand Renaissance Ethiopian Dam
d) Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam
3) What are people worried the filling of the dam could result in?
a) flooding
b) poverty
c) armed conflict
d) disease
4) What does Cairo view the dam as being?
a) an existential threat
b) a flood potential
c) an environmental disaster
d) a waste of money
5) In what times is the Nile particularly important for Egypt?
a) early morning and late evening
b) times of drought
c) harvest time
d) winter

6) Where are the natural springs that are the source of the Blue Nile?
a) above Lake Tana in Ethiopia
b) a desert in Ethiopia
c) Djibouti
d) Eritrea
7) Where does the Blue Nile merge with the White Nile?
a) near Egypt's Aswan Dam
b) just south of Cairo, Egypt
c) near Khartoum in Sudan
d) near the Suez Canal
8) What does Ethiopia call the dam?
a) an existential necessity
b) a mess
c) its  hope for the future
d) Bob
9) How much of Ethiopia is without electricity?
a) about two-thirds
b) three-quarters
c) around 80%
d) nearly half the population

10) What did a politician say one nation's need for electricity is pinned to?
a) a corkboard
b) hopes and dreams
c) another nation's need for water
d) a lapel

Role play

Role  A – Hydroelectric Dams
You think hydroelectric dams are the best way to create electricity. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their forms. Also, tell the others which is the least effective of these (and why): nuclear energy, wind farms or solar panels.

Role  B – Nuclear Energy
You think nuclear energy is the best way to create electricity. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their forms. Also, tell the others which is the least effective of these (and why): hydroelectric dams, wind farms or solar panels.

Role  C – Wind Farms
You think wind farms are the best way to create electricity. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their forms. Also, tell the others which is the least effective of these (and why): nuclear energy, hydroelectric dams or solar panels.

Role  D – Solar Panels
You think solar panels are the best way to create electricity. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their forms. Also, tell the others which is the least effective of these (and why): nuclear energy, wind farms or hydroelectric dams.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'river'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'dam'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • region
    • broke
    • filling
    • rural
    • alarm
    • times
    • natural
    • near
    • largely
    • nearly
    • share
    • need




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - River Nile Dam

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'river'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. What do you know about the River Nile?
    5. Do you think Ethiopia should open the dam?
    6. Who does the water in Ethiopia's rivers belong to?
    7. What dams are there in your country?
    8. Should Egypt share electricity with Ethiopia?
    9. What advice do you have for Ethiopia's leader?
    10. What questions would you like to ask Egypt's leader?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'dam'?
    3. What do you know about dams?
    4. How important are dams?
    5. What damage do dams do?
    6. Are hydroelectric dams good for the environment?
    7. Why is the dam an existential threat to Egypt?
    8. What would the consequences be of conflict in the region?
    9. What do you think of Ethiopia's dam?
    10. What would happen if water wars broke out?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    A dam on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia is escalating (1) ____ in the region. African Union-led talks between Ethiopia, Egypt and Sudan over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (2) ____ down on Monday. There are fears that the filling of the dam could lead to (3) ____ conflict. Ethiopia is constructing the dam to supply electricity to its (4) ____ areas. It is the largest hydroelectric dam in Africa and is two-thirds finished. Ethiopia has started filling the dam, which has raised (5) ____ in Cairo. Egypt views the dam as an "existential threat" and is concerned the dam will reduce its water supplies. Most of Egypt's water comes entirely from the Nile, particularly during times of (6) ____.

    The Blue Nile (7) ____ in natural springs above Lake Tana in Ethiopia. It supplies the majority of the water for the Nile River. The Blue Nile (8) ____ with the White Nile near Khartoum in Sudan. The waterway becomes the River Nile from the point of (9) ____ of the two rivers. Ethiopia calls the dam an "existential necessity". Taxes from Ethiopian citizens have largely paid for the dam. Ethiopia's government says the dam is (10) ____ as nearly half the country's population lacks access to electricity. Egypt has said it could share electricity with Ethiopia (11) ____ of the dam being used. An Egyptian politician said: "One nation's need for electricity is (12) ____ to another nation's need for water."

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     attentions     (b)     tense     (c)     tenses     (d)     tensions    
    2. (a)     snapped     (b)     disappeared     (c)     crumbled     (d)     broke    
    3. (a)     legged     (b)     armed     (c)     handed     (d)     fingered    
    4. (a)     rival     (b)     vital     (c)     rural     (d)     revel    
    5. (a)     panic     (b)     bells     (c)     alarm     (d)     snooze    
    6. (a)     drought     (b)     draft     (c)     draught     (d)     dough    
    7. (a)     originals     (b)     originates     (c)     origins     (d)     originality    
    8. (a)     merges     (b)     submerges     (c)     emerges     (d)     emergencies    
    9. (a)     affluence     (b)     confluence     (c)     emergence     (d)     congruence    
    10. (a)     necessity     (b)     must     (c)     essential     (d)     needy    
    11. (a)     prefer     (b)     rather     (c)     instead     (d)     place    
    12. (a)     pond     (b)     panned     (c)     penned     (d)     pinned

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. tnsgiaelca tensions in the region
    2. could lead to armed clfotnci
    3. supply electricity to its ralru areas
    4. an "elestiiaxtn threat"
    5. Most of Egypt's water comes ritelyen from the Nile
    6. particularly during times of rohugdt

    Paragraph 2

    1. The Blue Nile iigseonrta in natural springs
    2. The Blue Nile sgrmee with the White Nile
    3. the point of nnucecelfo of the two rivers
    4. the dam is atssilnee
    5. half the country's lnpooutpai
    6. An Egyptian apincioilt

    Put the text back together

    (...)  between Ethiopia, Egypt and Sudan over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam broke
    (...)  share electricity with Ethiopia instead of the dam being used. An Egyptian politician said:
    (...)  is essential as nearly half the country's population lacks access to electricity. Egypt has said it could
    (...)  the dam as an "existential threat" and is concerned the dam will reduce its water
    (...)  of the water for the Nile River. The Blue Nile merges with the White Nile near Khartoum
    (...)  "One nation's need for electricity is pinned to another nation's need for water."
    (...)  The Blue Nile originates in natural springs above Lake Tana in Ethiopia. It supplies the majority
    (...)  supplies. Most of Egypt's water comes entirely from the Nile, particularly during times of drought.
    1  ) A dam on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia is escalating tensions in the region. African Union-led talks
    (...)  the dam to supply electricity to its rural areas. It is the largest hydroelectric dam in Africa and is two-
    (...)  in Sudan. The waterway becomes the River Nile from the point of confluence of the two rivers. Ethiopia calls the dam an
    (...)  "existential necessity". Taxes from Ethiopian citizens have largely paid for the dam. Ethiopia's government says the dam
    (...)  thirds finished. Ethiopia has started filling the dam, which has raised alarm in Cairo. Egypt views
    (...)  down on Monday. There are fears that the filling of the dam could lead to armed conflict. Ethiopia is constructing

    Put the words in the right order

    1. is   escalating   dam   A   the   region   .   tensions   in
    2. dam   conflict   .   lead   Filling   could   the   to   armed
    3. electricity   .   to   constructing   dam   supply   is   the   Ethiopia
    4. dam   in   the   raised   has   alarm   Filling   Cairo   .
    5. of   Nile   .   Most   comes   water   Egypt's   from   the
    6. the   It   water   .   the   of   supplies   Nile's   majority
    7. of   The   confluence   of   point   two   the   rivers   .
    8. citizens   paid   Ethiopian   the   have   largely   for   dam   .
    9. could   it   electricity   share   Egypt   with   Ethiopia   .   said
    10. nation's   need   Pinned   another   water   .   for   to

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    A dam on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia is laddering / escalating tensions in the region. African Union-led talks between Ethiopia, Egypt and Sudan over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam smashed / broke down on Monday. There are fears that the filling / filing of the dam could lead to armed / legged conflict. Ethiopia is constructing the dam to demand / supply electricity to its rural / aural areas. It is the largest hydroelectric dam in Africa and is two-thirds finished. Ethiopia has started filling the dam, which has arisen / raised alarm in Cairo. Egypt views the dam as an "existing / existential threat" and is concerned the dam will reduce / deduce its water supplies. Most of Egypt's water comes entirely from the Nile, particularly during times of draught / drought.

    The Blue Nile originates in natural springs / jumps above Lake Tana in Ethiopia. It supplies the majority / majorly of the water for the Nile River. The Blue Nile emerges / merges with the White Nile near Khartoum in Sudan. The waterway / motorway becomes the River Nile from the point of confluence / congruence of the two rivers. Ethiopia calls the dam an "existential necessary / necessity". Taxes from Ethiopian citizens have largely spent / paid for the dam. Ethiopia's government says the dam is essential as nearly half the country's population lacks / slack access to electricity. Egypt has said it could share electricity with Ethiopia instead to / of the dam being used. An Egyptian politician said: "One nation's need for electricity is pinned / panned to another nation's need for water."

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    A d_m _n t h_ B l__ N_l_ _n E t h__ p__ _s _s c_l_t_n g t_n s__ n s _n t h_ r_g__ n . A f r_c_n U n__ n - l_d t_l k s b_t w__ n E t h__ p__ , E g y p t _n d S_d_n _v_r t h_ G r_n d E t h__ p__ n R_n__ s s_n c_ D_m b r_k_ d_w n _n M_n d_y . T h_r_ _r_ f__ r s t h_t t h_ f_l l_n g _f t h_ d_m c__ l d l__ d t_ _r m_d c_n f l_c t . E t h__ p__ _s c_n s t r_c t_n g t h_ d_m t_ s_p p l y _l_c t r_c_t y t_ _t s r_r_l _r__ s . I t _s t h_ l_r g_s t h y d r__ l_c t r_c d_m _n A f r_c_ _n d _s t w_- t h_r d s f_n_s h_d . E t h__ p__ h_s s t_r t_d f_l l_n g t h_ d_m , w h_c h h_s r__ s_d _l_r m _n C__ r_. E g y p t v__ w s t h_ d_m _s _n "_x_s t_n t__ l t h r__ t " _n d _s c_n c_r n_d t h_ d_m w_l l r_d_c_ _t s w_t_r s_p p l__ s . M_s t _f E g y p t ' s w_t_r c_m_s _n t_r_l y f r_m t h_ N_l_, p_r t_c_l_r l y d_r_n g t_m_s _f d r__ g h t .

    T h_ B l__ N_l_ _r_g_n_t_s _n n_t_r_l s p r_n g s _b_v_ L_k_ T_n_ _n E t h__ p__ . I t s_p p l__ s t h_ m_j_r_t y _f t h_ w_t_r f_r t h_ N_l_ R_v_r . T h_ B l__ N_l_ m_r g_s w_t h t h_ W h_t_ N_l_ n__ r K h_r t__ m _n S_d_n . T h_ w_t_r w_y b_c_m_s t h_ R_v_r N_l_ f r_m t h_ p__ n t _f c_n f l__ n c_ _f t h_ t w_ r_v_r s . E t h__ p__ c_l l s t h_ d_m _n "_x_s t_n t__ l n_c_s s_t y " . T_x_s f r_m E t h__ p__ n c_t_z_n s h_v_ l_r g_l y p__ d f_r t h_ d_m . E t h__ p__ ' s g_v_r n m_n t s_y s t h_ d_m _s _s s_n t__ l _s n__ r l y h_l f t h_ c__ n t r y ' s p_p_l_t__ n l_c k s _c c_s s t_ _l_c t r_c_t y . E g y p t h_s s__ d _t c__ l d s h_r_ _l_c t r_c_t y w_t h E t h__ p__ _n s t__ d _f t h_ d_m b__ n g _s_d . A n E g y p t__ n p_l_t_c__ n s__ d : " O n_ n_t__ n ' s n__ d f_r _l_c t r_c_t y _s p_n n_d t_ _n_t h_r n_t__ n ' s n__ d f_r w_t_r . "

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    a dam on the blue nile in ethiopia is escalating tensions in the region african unionled talks between ethiopia egypt and sudan over the grand ethiopian renaissance dam broke down on monday there are fears that the filling of the dam could lead to armed conflict ethiopia is constructing the dam to supply electricity to its rural areas it is the largest hydroelectric dam in africa and is twothirds finished ethiopia has started filling the dam which has raised alarm in cairo egypt views the dam as an existential threat and is concerned the dam will reduce its water supplies most of egypts water comes entirely from the nile particularly during times of drought

    the blue nile originates in natural springs above lake tana in ethiopia it supplies the majority of the water for the nile river the blue nile merges with the white nile near khartoum in sudan the waterway becomes the river nile from the point of confluence of the two rivers ethiopia calls the dam an existential necessity taxes from ethiopian citizens have largely paid for the dam ethiopias government says the dam is essential as nearly half the countrys population lacks access to electricity egypt has said it could share electricity with ethiopia instead of the dam being used an egyptian politician said one nations need for electricity is pinned to another nations need for water

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    AdamontheBlueNileinEthiopiaisescalatingtensionsintheregion.Afric
    anUnion-ledtalksbetweenEthiopia,EgyptandSudanovertheGrandEt
    hiopianRenaissanceDambrokedownonMonday.Therearefearsthatth
    efillingofthedamcouldleadtoarmedconflict.Ethiopiaisconstructingth
    edamtosupplyelectricitytoitsruralareas.Itisthelargesthydroelectricd
    aminAfricaandistwo-thirdsfinished.Ethiopiahasstartedfillingtheda
    m,whichhasraisedalarminCairo.Egyptviewsthedamasan"existential
    threat"andisconcernedthedamwillreduceitswatersupplies.MostofEg
    ypt'swatercomesentirelyfromtheNile,particularlyduringtimesofdrou
    ght.TheBlueNileoriginatesinnaturalspringsaboveLakeTanainEthiopi
    a.ItsuppliesthemajorityofthewaterfortheNileRiver.TheBlueNilemer
    geswiththeWhiteNilenearKhartouminSudan.Thewaterwaybecomes
    theRiverNilefromthepointofconfluenceofthetworivers.Ethiopiacallst
    hedaman"existentialnecessity".TaxesfromEthiopiancitizenshavelar
    gelypaidforthedam.Ethiopia'sgovernmentsaysthedamisessentialas
    nearlyhalfthecountry'spopulationlacksaccesstoelectricity.Egypthas
    saiditcouldshareelectricitywithEthiopiainsteadofthedambeingused.
    AnEgyptianpoliticiansaid:"Onenation'sneedforelectricityispinnedto
    anothernation'sneedforwater."

    Free writing

    Write about River Nile dam for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    Rivers should never be dammed. Discuss.

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. DAMS: Make a poster about dams. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. ELECTRICITY: Write a magazine article about building lots more dams to provide more electricity. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on dams. Ask him/her three questions about them. Give him/her three of your opinions on building more dams. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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