The Reading / Listening - Early Humans - Level 3

Many animals hibernate for the winter. They stock up on food and hide away in a hole or cave to escape the snow and cold. Scientists now believe early human beings may have hibernated too. The scientists looked at the fossils of bones from our early ancestors who lived around 430,000 years ago. The bones were found in a site in the north of Spain. The scientists are experts in studying fossils and ancient bones. They say that the cuts and other signs of damage on the bones they examined are similar to those on bones of animals who hibernate, like bears. They also say that early humans may have hibernated to escape the extreme cold. Winters were much colder hundreds of thousands of years ago.



The scientists looked at the bones of several dozen humans. Scientist Antonis Bartsiokas said there is evidence that early humans slowed down their metabolism so they could survive longer in winter without food. However, humans could not slow their metabolism like a bear. Bears can wake up after months of hibernation and their body will be the same as when they went into hibernation. The bones of the early humans showed people suffered health problems because of hibernation. Many of the problems were caused by a lack of vitamin D, which we get from sunlight. This can make our bones weaker. The researchers said: "We have to emphasise that hibernations are not always healthy."

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Early Humans - Level 0 Early Humans - Level 1   or  Early Humans - Level 2

Sources
  • https://www.theguardian.com/science/2020/dec/20/early-humans-may-have-survived-the-harsh-winters-by-hibernating
  • https://www.sciencealert.com/early-humans-may-have-hibernated-through-long-winters
  • https://sputniknews.com/science/202012201081521644-early-humans-may-have-slept-through-harsh-winters-new-study-finds/


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. HIBERNATION: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about hibernation. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       hibernate / cave / snow / fossils / bones / experts / damage / similar / extreme / cold
       scientists / humans / metabolism / survive / bear / hibernation / vitamin D / sunlight
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. HIBERNATE: Students A strongly believe humans should hibernate for a short time during colder weather; Students B strongly believe they shouldn't. Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. EARLY HUMANS: What do you think early humans did? Would this be better or worse than today? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

What They Did?

Better Or Worse Than Today?

Hobbies

 

 

Food

 

 

Games

 

 

Conversation

 

 

Medicine

 

 

Travel

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. WINTER: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "winter". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. ANIMALS: Rank these with your partner. Put the best lifestyle aspects of animals at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • Hibernation
  • Dog-like hearing
  • A cheetah's speed
  • An eagle's eye
  • A bat's radar
  • An ant's teamwork
  • A chameleon's camouflage
  • A dolphin's ultrasound

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. stock up a. The remains or image of a prehistoric living thing preserved in a rock.
      2. cave b. Gather lots of things you need for use later.
      3. escape c. Get free from somewhere, something or someone.
      4. fossil d. Belonging to the very distant past and no longer in existence.
      5. ancestor e. Reaching a high or the highest degree; very great.
      6. ancient f. A large underground room, usually in a hillside or cliff.
      7. extreme g. A person in one's past family, usually one older than a grandparent.

    Paragraph 2

      8. dozen h. Continue to live or exist, especially in danger or difficulties.
      9. evidence i. Give special importance or prominence to something.
      10. metabolism j. The state of being without or not having enough of something.
      11. survive k. The chemical processes that happen in a living organism to keep life going.
      12. suffered l. Experienced or something bad or unpleasant.
      13. lack m. A group or set of twelve.
      14. emphasise n. The facts or information showing if a belief or idea is true.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. The article says animals stock up on food and hide in a cave or hole.     T / F
  2. Scientists studied the bones that were over 500,000 years old.     T / F
  3. The scientists are experts in hibernating for the winter.     T / F
  4. Winters were milder hundreds of thousands of year ago.     T / F
  5. The scientists looked at the bones of over 100 early humans.     T / F
  6. Bears could slow their metabolism for longer than early humans.     T / F
  7. A lack of sunlight caused early humans health problems.     T / F
  8. A scientist said hibernating was always healthy.     T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. hibernate
  2. escape
  3. ancestors
  4. damage
  5. extreme
  6. evidence
  7. suffered
  8. lack
  9. weaker
  10. emphasise
  1. absence
  2. harm
  3. proof
  4. get away from
  5. stress
  6. more frail
  7. sleep
  8. very great
  9. predecessors
  10. experienced

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. Many animals hibernate
  2. They stock up on food and
  3. escape the
  4. the fossils of bones from
  5. hibernated to escape the extreme
  6. scientists looked at the bones of several
  7. humans could not slow
  8. people suffered
  9. caused by a lack
  10. This can make our bones
  1. weaker
  2. snow and cold
  3. dozen humans
  4. cold
  5. hide away
  6. their metabolism
  7. of vitamin D
  8. for the winter
  9. health problems
  10. our early ancestors

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
stock
ancient
extreme
fossils
experts
escape
similar
ancestors

Many animals hibernate for the winter. They (1) _____________________ up on food and hide away in a hole or cave to (2) _____________________ the snow and cold. Scientists now believe early human beings may have hibernated too. The scientists looked at the (3) _____________________ of bones from our early (4) _____________________ who lived around 430,000 years ago. The bones were found in a site in the north of Spain. The scientists are (5) _____________________ in studying fossils and (6) _____________________ bones. They say that the cuts and other signs of damage on the bones they examined are (7) _____________________ to those on bones of animals who hibernate, like bears. They also say that early humans may have hibernated to escape the (8) _____________________ cold. Winters were much colder hundreds of thousands of years ago.

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
metabolism
lack
same
emphasise
several
weaker
evidence
suffered

The scientists looked at the bones of (9) _____________________ dozen humans. Scientist Antonis Bartsiokas said there is (10) _____________________ that early humans slowed down their metabolism so they could survive longer in winter without food. However, humans could not slow their (11) _____________________ like a bear. Bears can wake up after months of hibernation and their body will be the (12) _____________________ as when they went into hibernation. The bones of the early humans showed people (13) _____________________ health problems because of hibernation. Many of the problems were caused by a (14) _____________________ of vitamin D, which we get from sunlight. This can make our bones (15) _____________________. The researchers said: "We have to (16) _____________________ that hibernations are not always healthy."

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1) They stock up on food and hide away in a hole or ______
     a.  caves to escape
     b.  caved to escape
     c.  cave to escape
     d.  caver to escape
2)  Scientists now believe early human beings may have ______
     a.  hibernate it too
     b.  hibernates too
     c.  hibernation too
     d.  hibernated too
3)  The scientists are experts in studying fossils ______
     a.  end ancient bone
     b.  and ancient bones
     c.  end ancient bones
     d.  all ancient bones
4)  They also say that early humans may have hibernated to escape ______
     a.  the egg stream cold
     b.  the extreme cold
     c.  the eggs stream cold
     d.  the ex-stream cold
5)  Winters were much colder hundreds of thousands ______
     a.  off years ago
     b.  of year sago
     c.  off year sago
     d.  of years ago

6)  The scientists looked at the bones of ______
     a.  sever all dozens humans
     b.  severe all dozen humans
     c.  several dozen humans
     d.  several dozens humans
7)  early humans slowed down their metabolism so they could survive ______
     a.  long are in winter
     b.  long grain winter
     c.  longing winter
     d.  longer in winter
8)  after months of hibernation and their body will be the same as when they ______
     a.  went into hibernation
     b.  went in too hibernation
     c.  went in two hibernation
     d.  when tin two hibernation
9)  Many of the problems were caused by a lack of vitamin D, which we ______
     a.  get from suns light
     b.  gets from sunlit
     c.  get from sunlight
     d.  got from sunlight
10)  We have to emphasise that hibernations are ______
     a.  not always healthily
     b.  not always healthy
     c.  not always health
     d.  not always heath

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

Many animals hibernate (1) ____________________. They stock up on food and hide away in a hole or (2) ____________________ the snow and cold. Scientists now believe early human beings may have hibernated too. The scientists looked at (3) ____________________ bones from our early ancestors who lived around 430,000 years ago. The bones were found in a site in the north of Spain. The scientists (4) ____________________ studying fossils and ancient bones. They say that the cuts and other signs of damage on the bones they examined (5) ____________________ those on bones of animals who hibernate, like bears. They also say that early humans may have hibernated to escape the extreme cold. Winters were much colder (6) ____________________ of years ago.

The scientists looked at the bones (7) ____________________ humans. Scientist Antonis Bartsiokas said there is evidence that early humans slowed down their metabolism so they could (8) ____________________ winter without food. However, humans could not slow their metabolism like a bear. Bears can wake up (9) ____________________ hibernation and their body will be the same as when they went into hibernation. The bones of the early humans showed (10) ____________________ problems because of hibernation. Many of the problems were caused by a lack of vitamin D, which we get from sunlight. This can make (11) ____________________. The researchers said: "We have to emphasise that hibernations are (12) ____________________."

Comprehension questions

  1. What does the article say animals stock up on when they hibernate?
  2. How long ago did the early humans in the article live?
  3. In which country were the bones of the early humans found?
  4. What were there cuts and signs of damage on?
  5. What does the article say early humans hibernated to escape from?
  6. How many humans did the scientists study the bones of?
  7. What does the article say early humans may have slowed down?
  8. What did early humans suffer because of hibernation?
  9. What did early humans not get enough of?
  10. What did the researchers want to emphasise about hibernations?




Multiple choice quiz

1) What does the article say animals stock up on when they hibernate?
a) blankets
b) money
c) nuts
d) food
2) How long ago did the early humans in the article live?
a) 450,000 years ago
b) 430,000 years ago
c) 480,000 years ago
d) 400,000 years ago
3) In which country were the bones of the early humans found?
a) Portugal
b) France
c) Italy
d) Spain
4) What were there cuts and signs of damage on?
a) skulls
b) skin
c) bones
d) cave walls
5) What does the article say early humans hibernated to escape from?
a) no food
b) dinosaurs
c) sunlight
d) the extreme cold

6) How many humans did the scientists study the bones of?
a) 42
b) several
c) several dozen
d) a few
7) What does the article say early humans may have slowed down?
a) their metabolism
b) their walking pace
c) life
d) the ageing process
8) What did early humans suffer because of hibernation?
a) a lack of sleep
b) too much sleep
c) health problems
d) poor eyesight
9) What did early humans not get enough of?
a) vitamin E and sleep
b) vitamin D and sunlight
c) sunlight and vitamin E
d) vitamin C and food
10) What did the researchers want to emphasise about hibernations?
a) they were not always healthy
b) they were essential
c) they are needed today
d) bears liked them

Role play

Role  A – Hibernation
You think hibernation is the best animal attribute. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their attributes. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these (and why): a bat's radar, an ant's teamwork or an eagle's eye.

Role  B – A Bat's Radar
You think a bat's radar is the best animal attribute. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their attributes. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these (and why): hibernation, an ant's teamwork or an eagle's eye.

Role  C – An Ant's Teamwork
You think an ant's teamwork is the best animal attribute. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their attributes. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these (and why): a bat's radar, hibernation or an eagle's eye.

Role  D – An Eagle's Eye
You think an eagle's eye is the best animal attribute. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their attributes. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these (and why): a bat's radar, an ant's teamwork or hibernation.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'hibernate'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'winter'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • animals
    • believe
    • ancestors
    • studying
    • extreme
    • colder
    • several
    • slowed
    • wake
    • suffered
    • sunlight
    • healthy




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - Early Humans

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'hibernate'?
    3. Why do animals hibernate?
    4. Would you like to hibernate?
    5. What do you do to escape the cold?
    6. What do you know about early humans?
    7. What do you know about fossils?
    8. What was life like hundreds of thousands of years ago?
    9. Have you ever had a broken bone?
    10. What do you know about bears hibernating?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'winter'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. What do you know about the body's metabolism?
    5. What do you think of snow?
    6. Do you ever hibernate in your room?
    7. What do you know about vitamin D?
    8. What is the longest you can sleep for?
    9. How important is sunlight?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the scientists?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    Many animals hibernate for the winter. They (1) ____ up on food and hide away in a hole or cave to escape the snow and cold. Scientists now believe early human beings may have hibernated (2) ____. The scientists looked at the fossils of bones from our (3) ____ ancestors who lived around 430,000 years ago. The bones were found in a site in the north of Spain. The scientists are (4) ____ in studying fossils and ancient bones. They say that the cuts and other signs of damage on the bones they examined are (5) ____ to those on bones of animals who hibernate, like bears. They also say that early humans may have hibernated to escape the (6) ____ cold. Winters were much colder hundreds of thousands of years ago.

    The scientists looked at the bones of (7) ____ dozen humans. Scientist Antonis Bartsiokas said there is evidence that early humans slowed down their metabolism so they could survive longer in winter without food. However, humans could not slow their metabolism (8) ____ a bear. Bears can wake up after months of hibernation and their body will be the same as when they went (9) ____ hibernation. The bones of the early humans showed people suffered health problems because of hibernation. Many of the problems were caused (10) ____ a lack of vitamin D, which we get from sunlight. This can (11) ____ our bones weaker. The researchers said: "We have to emphasise (12) ____ hibernations are not always healthy."

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     stack     (b)     stock     (c)     stick     (d)     stuck    
    2. (a)     well     (b)     too     (c)     addition     (d)     plus    
    3. (a)     untimely     (b)     fast     (c)     advance     (d)     early    
    4. (a)     expats     (b)     experts     (c)     expects     (d)     extents    
    5. (a)     same     (b)     similar     (c)     identically     (d)     mirror    
    6. (a)     scheme     (b)     meme     (c)     extreme     (d)     cream    
    7. (a)     serviced     (b)     severe     (c)     several     (d)     sever    
    8. (a)     same     (b)     add     (c)     like     (d)     roar    
    9. (a)     night     (b)     sleepy     (c)     time     (d)     into    
    10. (a)     by     (b)     at     (c)     of     (d)     to    
    11. (a)     make     (b)     do     (c)     have     (d)     break    
    12. (a)     what     (b)     this     (c)     that     (d)     where

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. eespac the snow and cold
    2. the slfsois of bones
    3. our early snrtcsaoe
    4. The scientists are setepxr
    5. fossils and tnianec bones
    6. escape the rtxeeem cold

    Paragraph 2

    1. the bones of evaersl dozen humans
    2. there is edinceev
    3. slowed down their mbtaiesmlo
    4. people frfudees health problems
    5. a lack of aimvtni D
    6. We have to ssmeihape that

    Put the text back together

    (...)  months of hibernation and their body will be the same as when they went into hibernation. The bones of the early
    (...)  to those on bones of animals who hibernate, like bears. They also say that early humans may have
    (...)  humans showed people suffered health problems because of hibernation. Many of the problems were caused
    (...)  without food. However, humans could not slow their metabolism like a bear. Bears can wake up after
    (...)  430,000 years ago. The bones were found in a site in the north of Spain. The scientists are experts
    (...)  too. The scientists looked at the fossils of bones from our early ancestors who lived around
    (...)  The scientists looked at the bones of several dozen humans. Scientist Antonis Bartsiokas said there is
    (...)  escape the snow and cold. Scientists now believe early human beings may have hibernated
    (...)  by a lack of vitamin D, which we get from sunlight. This can make our bones
    (...)  hibernated to escape the extreme cold. Winters were much colder hundreds of thousands of years ago.
    (...)  in studying fossils and ancient bones. They say that the cuts and other signs of damage on the bones they examined are similar
    (...)  evidence that early humans slowed down their metabolism so they could survive longer in winter
    (...)  weaker. The researchers said: "We have to emphasise that hibernations are not always healthy."
    1  ) Many animals hibernate for the winter. They stock up on food and hide away in a hole or cave to

    Put the words in the right order

    1. and   hide   stock   on   away   .   They   food   up
    2. too   .   Early   have   hibernated   may   beings   human
    3. fossils   The   the   of   looked   at   bones   .   scientists
    4. are   studying   fossils   .   scientists   The   experts   in
    5. thousands   Much   ago   .   of   of   hundreds   years   colder
    6. bones   at   several   of   the   dozen   Looked   humans   .
    7. down   humans   that   metabolism   .   Evidence   slowed   early   their
    8. can   of   after   up   Bears   wake   hibernation   .   months
    9. because   health   People   of   hibernation   .   problems   suffered
    10. caused   by   of   vitamin   Problems   lack   D   .   were   a

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    Many animals hibernation / hibernate for the winter. They stock down / up on food and hide away in a hole or cave to escape the snow and cold. Scientists now belief / believe early human beings may have hibernated too. The scientists looked at the fossils off / of bones from our early ancestors who lived / live around 430,000 years ago. The bones were found in a site in the north of Spain. The scientists are experts / expats in studying fossils and ancient bones. They say that the cuts and other signs to / of damage on the bones they examined are similar / same to those on bones of animals who hibernate, like bear / bears. They also say that early humans may have hibernated to escape the extreme cold. Winters were much colder / cold hundreds of thousands of years ago.

    The scientists looked at / to the bones of several dozen humans. Scientist Antonis Bartsiokas said there be / is evidence that early humans slowed down their metabolism so they could survival / survive longer in winter without food. However, humans could not show / slow their metabolism like a bear. Bears can wake up after months of hibernation and their body will be the similar / same as when they went into hibernation. The bones off / of the early humans showed people suffered / suffering health problems because of hibernation. Many of the problems were caused by a slack / lack of vitamin D, which we get / shine from sunlight. This can make our bones weaker. The researchers said: "We have to emphasise that hibernations are not ever / always healthy."

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    Many _n_mals  h_b_rnat_  f_r  th_  w_nt_r.  Th_y  st_ck  _p  _n  f__d _nd  h_d_ _way  _n _  h_l_  _r  cav_  t_  _scap_  th_  sn_w _nd  c_ld.  Sc__nt_sts  n_w  b_l__v_  _arly  h_man  b__ngs  may  hav_  h_b_rnat_d  t__.  Th_  sc__nt_sts  l__k_d _t  th_  f_ss_ls  _f  b_n_s  fr_m  __r  _arly _nc_st_rs  wh_  l_v_d _r__nd  430,000  y_ars _g_.  Th_  b_n_s  w_r_  f__nd  _n _  s_t_  _n  th_  n_rth  _f  Spa_n.  Th_  sc__nt_sts _r_  _xp_rts  _n  st_dy_ng  f_ss_ls _nd _nc__nt  b_n_s.  Th_y  say  that  th_  c_ts _nd  _th_r  s_gns  _f  damag_  _n  th_  b_n_s  th_y  _xam_n_d _r_  s_m_lar  t_  th_s_  _n  b_n_s  _f _n_mals  wh_  h_b_rnat_,  l_k_  b_ars.  Th_y _ls_  say  that  _arly  h_mans  may  hav_  h_b_rnat_d  t_  _scap_  th_  _xtr_m_  c_ld.  W_nt_rs  w_r_  m_ch  c_ld_r  h_ndr_ds  _f  th__sands  _f  y_ars _g_.

    Th_  sc__nt_sts  l__k_d _t  th_  b_n_s  _f  s_v_ral  d_z_n  h_mans.  Sc__nt_st _nt_n_s  Barts__kas  sa_d  th_r_  _s  _v_d_nc_  that  _arly  h_mans  sl_w_d  d_wn  th__r  m_tab_l_sm  s_  th_y  c__ld  s_rv_v_  l_ng_r  _n  w_nt_r  w_th__t  f__d.  H_w_v_r,  h_mans  c__ld  n_t  sl_w  th__r  m_tab_l_sm  l_k_ _  b_ar.  B_ars  can  wak_  _p _ft_r  m_nths  _f  h_b_rnat__n _nd  th__r  b_dy  w_ll  b_  th_  sam_ _s  wh_n  th_y  w_nt  _nt_  h_b_rnat__n.  Th_  b_n_s  _f  th_  _arly  h_mans  sh_w_d  p__pl_  s_ff_r_d  h_alth  pr_bl_ms  b_ca_s_  _f  h_b_rnat__n.  Many  _f  th_  pr_bl_ms  w_r_  ca_s_d  by _  lack  _f  v_tam_n  D,  wh_ch  w_  g_t  fr_m  s_nl_ght.  Th_s  can  mak_  __r  b_n_s  w_ak_r.  Th_  r_s_arch_rs  sa_d:  "W_  hav_  t_  _mphas_s_  that  h_b_rnat__ns _r_  n_t _lw_ys  h_  _lthy."

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    many animals hibernate for the winter they stock up on food and hide away in a hole or cave to escape the snow and cold scientists now believe early human beings may have hibernated too the scientists looked at the fossils of bones from our early ancestors who lived around 430000 years ago the bones were found in a site in the north of spain the scientists are experts in studying fossils and ancient bones they say that the cuts and other signs of damage on the bones they examined are similar to those on bones of animals who hibernate like bears they also say that early humans may have hibernated to escape the extreme cold winters were much colder hundreds of thousands of years ago

    the scientists looked at the bones of several dozen humans scientist antonis bartsiokas said there is evidence that early humans slowed down their metabolism so they could survive longer in winter without food however humans could not slow their metabolism like a bear bears can wake up after months of hibernation and their body will be the same as when they went into hibernation the bones of the early humans showed people suffered health problems because of hibernation many of the problems were caused by a lack of vitamin d which we get from sunlight this can make our bones weaker the researchers said we have to emphasise that hibernations are not always healthy

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    Manyanimalshibernateforthewinter.Theystockuponfoodandhideaw
    ayinaholeorcavetoescapethesnowandcold.Scientistsnowbelieveearl
    yhumanbeingsmayhavehibernatedtoo.Thescientistslookedatthefos
    silsofbonesfromourearlyancestorswholivedaround430,000yearsag
    o.TheboneswerefoundinasiteinthenorthofSpain.Thescientistsareex
    pertsinstudyingfossilsandancientbones.Theysaythatthecutsandoth
    ersignsofdamageonthebonestheyexaminedaresimilartothoseonbon
    esofanimalswhohibernate,likebears.Theyalsosaythatearlyhumans
    mayhavehibernatedtoescapetheextremecold.Wintersweremuchcol
    derhundredsofthousandsofyearsago.Thescientistslookedatthebone
    sofseveraldozenhumans.ScientistAntonisBartsiokassaidthereisevid
    encethatearlyhumanssloweddowntheirmetabolismsotheycouldsurv
    ivelongerinwinterwithoutfood.However,humanscouldnotslowtheir
    metabolismlikeabear.Bearscanwakeupaftermonthsofhibernationan
    dtheirbodywillbethesameaswhentheywentintohibernation.Thebone
    softheearlyhumansshowedpeoplesufferedhealthproblemsbecauseo
    fhibernation.ManyoftheproblemswerecausedbyalackofvitaminD,wh
    ichwegetfromsunlight.Thiscanmakeourbonesweaker.Theresearche
    rssaid:"Wehavetoemphasisethathibernationsarenotalwayshealthy.
    "

    Free writing

    Write about early humans for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    Hibernating in winter would be great for humans. Discuss.

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. NO HIBERNATION: Make a poster about encouraging more people to stay outdoors in winter. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. EARLY HUMANS: Write a magazine article about hibernation. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on hibernation. Ask him/her three questions about it. Give him/her three of your ideas on it. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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