Speed Reading — Identical Twins - Level 6 — 200 wpm

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A new study shows that while identical twins can look perfectly alike, it is not a perfect similarity. They are not clones of each other. Scientists at the University of Iceland analyzed the DNA from 387 pairs of identical twins - babies born from a single fertilized egg. The scientists compared the DNA with that of the twins' parents and children. The geneticists looked for mutations in the early stages of development. A mutation is a tiny change in the sequence of the DNA that can occur when a cell divides. This change causes a slight difference in the DNA replication process. A single, tiny change can create differences in height, intelligence, eye colour and even in susceptibility to disease.

The study shows that identical twins do not share totally identical DNA. In about 15 per cent of identical twin pairs, one twin carried a "substantial" number of mutations that the other did not share. The scientists say this difference is important as it sheds light on the "nature versus nurture" debate. This is whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, socialization and upbringing, or by a person's genes. The research shows that this tiny difference, and not environmental factors, could be the reason why one twin develops different behavioural characteristics or medical conditions. Professor Kari Stefansson said a genetic mutation may be the source of a given disease or trait.

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