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Many people believe that putting the toilet-seat lid down helps to [prevention / prevent] the spread of dangerous germs and viruses. A recent study pretty much [expels / dispels] this supposition. A team of microbiologists from the University of Arizona conducted research on the [aerial / aural] activity of viral particles after a toilet is [flashed / flushed] . The scientists [detriment / determined] that there is little difference in [the / a] spread of germs, regardless of [whether / rather] the lid is up or down. Microbiologist Dr Charles Gerba has been studying [lavatory / laboratory] pathogens for nearly five decades. He said: "All that air when you flush goes somewhere, and it carries the viruses that are in the toilet [bowel / bowl] out of it." He said a flush forces [bacteria / bacterium] out from under the lid and contaminates nearby areas.

The researchers tested the spread of a [vest / test] virus in two bathrooms after a flush. The virus was one not able to [inject / infect] humans. They flushed one bowl with the lid up, and another with the lid down. After a minute, they used a sponge to [squab / swab] the surfaces in the toilet. They concluded that there were no significant [statistically / statistical] differences in the [quantities / qualities] of the virus in the two bathrooms. They added that the results "demonstrate that closing the toilet lid [prior / priory] to flushing does not mitigate the risk [to / of] contaminating bathroom surfaces, and that [dissatisfaction / disinfection] of all restroom surfaces may be necessary after flushing or [prior / after] toilet-brush use" to cut the spread of germs. They also said it was important to [reinfect / disinfect] the water in the bowl.

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