The Reading / Listening - Level 3

A new study shows that people today have more gum disease than people living 2,000 years ago. The study is from the university King's College in London and is published in the 'British Dental Journal'. Researchers looked at the teeth in the skulls of 303 people who lived between 200-400 AD (2,200-2,400 years ago). The skulls were found at an old burial site in the west of England. The researchers found that only 5 per cent of the skulls showed signs of gum disease. Up to 30 per cent of people in England today have gum disease. Professor Francis Hughes was surprised by what he found. He said people did not have toothbrushes or toothpaste back then and did not visit dentists, like we do today.



The main reason why modern people have more gum disease is smoking. Theya Molleson, co-author of the report, said the study shows that people's oral health has become much worse over the past 2,000 years. She added that she thinks gum disease could start going down from now as more people stop smoking. She said: "As smoking declines in the population, we should see a decline in the [numbers of people with] the disease." Gum disease happens when bacteria build up in your mouth. The bacteria eat away at your gums and can make your teeth fall out. People can reduce the risk of gum disease by regular brushing, using mouthwash and not smoking.

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Level 0 Level 1   or  Level 2

Sources
  • http://www.healthcanal.com/oral-dental-health/56640-romans-had-less-gum-disease-than-modern-britons.html
  • http://www.nature.com/bdj/journal/v217/n8/full/sj.bdj.2014.908.html
  • http://www.nhm.ac.uk/about-us/news/2014/oct/gum-disease-worse-now-than-in-roman-britain133420.html


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



The 40 Lesson Activities on the PDF Handout

WARM-UPS

1. TEETH AND GUMS: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about teeth and gums. Change partners often and share your findings.

2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?

 

study / gum disease / university / researchers / teeth / surprised / toothbrush / dentist / main reason / smoking / oral health / population / bacteria / regular brushing / risk

Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.

3. 2,000 YEARS AGO: How was life different? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

Differences?

Better or worse (and why)?

Our food

 

 

Teeth

 

 

Hair

 

 

Exercise

 

 

Friends

 

 

Travel

 

 

4. FALSE TEETH (DENTURES): Students A strongly believe it would be easier to have false teeth; Students B strongly believe having your own (real and natural) teeth is best.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
MY e-BOOK
See a sample

5. ORAL HYGIENE: Rank these with your partner. Put the most important for oral hygiene at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • regular brushing

  • rinsing after eating

  • no sweets

  • visits to the dentist

  • flossing

  • using mouthwash

  • no smoking

  • chewing gum

6. DENTIST: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "dentist". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.



BEFORE READING / LISTENING

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if  a-h  below are true (T) or false (F).

a.

People from 2,000 years ago had healthier gums than people today.

T / F

b.

Researchers looked at the skulls of over 3,000 people.

T / F

c.

Less than 6% of the 2,000-year-old skulls had signs of gum disease.

T / F

d.

People 2,000 years ago started using the world's first toothpaste.

T / F

e.

The study says smoking is the biggest cause of gum disease.

T / F

f.

A researcher said she thinks gum disease will increase from now.

T / F

g.

Gum disease is because of a build-up of bacteria in your mouth.

T / F

h.

Mouthwash actually increases the likelihood of getting gum disease.

T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

1.

study

a.

ancient

2.

published

b.

go to

3.

old

c.

goes down

4.

signs

d.

printed

5.

visit

e.

lower

6.

main

f.

frequent

7.

much

g.

research

8.

declines

h.

a lot

9.

reduce

i.

evidence

10.

regular

j.

biggest

3. PHRASE MATCH:  (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

1.

people today

a.

toothpaste back then

2.

the teeth in the

b.

of gum disease

3.

found at an old

c.

by regular brushing

4.

the skulls showed signs

d.

health

5.

people did not have toothbrushes or

e.

skulls of 303 people

6.

The main

f.

start going down

7.

oral

g.

have more gum disease

8.

she thinks gum disease could

h.

up in your mouth

9.

bacteria build

i.

burial site

10.

reduce the risk of gum disease

j.

reason why



 

GAP FILL

A new study shows that people today have more gum disease than people (1) ____________ 2,000 years ago. The study is from the university King's College in London and is (2) ____________ in the 'British Dental Journal'. Researchers looked at the teeth in the (3) ____________ of 303 people who lived between 200-400 AD (2,200-2,400 years ago). The skulls were found at an old (4) ____________ site in the west of England. The researchers found that only 5 per cent of the skulls showed (5) ____________ of gum disease. Up to 30 per cent of people in England today have gum disease. Professor Francis Hughes was (6) ____________ by what he found. He said people did not have toothbrushes or toothpaste (7) ____________ then and did not visit (8) ____________, like we do today.

 

 

surprised
published
burial
back
dentists
living
signs
skulls

The main reason why (9) ____________ people have more gum disease is smoking. Theya Molleson, co-author of the (10) ____________, said the study shows that people's (11) ____________ health has become much worse over the past 2,000 years. She added that she thinks gum disease could start going (12) ____________ from now as more people stop smoking. She said: "As smoking declines in the population, we should see a (13) ____________ in the [numbers of people with] the disease." Gum disease happens when bacteria (14) ____________ up in your mouth. The bacteria eat away at your gums and can make your teeth (15) ____________ out. People can reduce the risk of gum disease by (16) ____________ brushing, using mouthwash and not smoking.

 

oral
decline
fall
modern
regular
report
build
down

 





LISTENING - Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)

people today have more gum disease than people ______

 

a.  live in 2,000 years ago
b.  alive in 2,000 years ago
c.  living 2,000 years ago
d.  living in 2,000 years ago

2)

Researchers looked at the teeth in the ______ people

 

a.  skulls of 303
b.  skills of 303
c.  schools of 303
d.  scales of 303

3)

The skulls were found at an ______

 

a.  old bury all site
b.  old buried site
c.  old berry all site
d.  old burial site

4)

Up to 30 per cent of people in England ______ disease

 

a.  these days have gum
b.  today have gum
c.  nowadays have gum
d.  two days have gum

5)

He said people did not have toothbrushes or ______

 

a.  toothpaste backing then
b.  toothpaste back then
c.  toothpaste backing them
d.  toothpaste backs then

6)

The main reason why modern people have more gum ______

 

a.  diseases is smoking
b.  disease is smoking
c.  diseases smoking
d.  disease this smoking

7)

the study shows that people's oral health has become ______

 

a.  much worsen
b.  much worse
c.  much worsened
d.  much worth

8)

As smoking declines in the population, we should see a ______ numbers

 

a.  decline in the
b.  recline in the
c.  incline in the
d.  the cline in the

9)

Gum disease happens when bacteria build ______

 

a.  up in your mouth
b.  up on your mouth
c.  up of your mouth
d.  up by your mouth

10)

People can reduce the risk of gum disease by ______

 

a.  regularly brushing
b.  regulated brushing
c.  regular brushing
d.  regulars brushing

LISTENING – Listen and fill in the gaps

A new study shows that people (1) ___________________ gum disease than people living 2,000 years ago. The study is from the university King's College in London and (2) ___________________ 'British Dental Journal'. Researchers looked at the teeth (3) ___________________ 303 people who lived between 200-400 AD (2,200-2,400 years ago). The skulls were found at (4) ___________________ the west of England. The researchers found that only 5 per cent of the skulls (5) ___________________ disease. Up to 30 per cent of people in England today have gum disease. Professor Francis Hughes was surprised by what he found. He said people did not have toothbrushes or (6) ___________________ and did not visit dentists, like we do today.

The (7) ___________________ modern people have more gum disease is smoking. Theya Molleson, co-author of the report, said the study shows that people's (8) ___________________ become much worse over the past 2,000 years. She added that she thinks gum disease (9) ___________________ down from now as more people stop smoking. She said: "As smoking declines in the population, we (10) ___________________ the [numbers of people with] the disease." Gum disease happens when bacteria (11) ___________________. The bacteria eat away at your gums and can make your teeth fall out. People can (12) ___________________ disease by regular brushing, using mouthwash and not smoking.





COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS

1.

What is the name of the university that carried out the study?

2.

How many different skulls did researchers look at in their research?

3.

Where in England were the skulls located?

4.

Around how many people have gum disease in England today?

5.

Who did people not visit 2,000 years ago?

6.

What did the study say is the biggest cause of gum disease?

7.

What did a researcher say has become worse in the past 2,000 years?

8.

What would happen if more people stopped smoking?

9.

What do bacteria eat away at?

10.

What can we use to help reduce the risk of gum disease?

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ

1.

What is the name of the university that carried out the study?

6.

What did the study say is the biggest cause of gum disease?

 

a) Queen's University
b) King's College
c) Princess School
d) Princeton

 

a) chocolate
b) juice
c) smoking
d) fizzy drinks (sodas)

2.

How many different skulls did researchers look at in their research?

7.

What did a researcher say has become worse in the past 2,000 years?

 

a) 606
b) 505
c) 404
d) 303

 

a) aerial health
b) all our health
c) aural health
d) oral health

3.

Where in England were the skulls located?

8.

What would happen if more people stopped smoking?

 

a) the west
b) the north
c) the middle
d) the south

 

a) gum disease would go down
b) people would eat chocolate
c) governments would lose money
d) there would be more dentists

4.

Around how many people have gum disease in England today?

9.

What do bacteria eat away at?

 

a) 26%
b) 28%
c) 30%
d) 32%

 

a) gums
b) cakes
c) disease
d) toothpaste

5.

Who did people not visit 2,000 years ago?

10.

What can we use to help reduce the risk of gum disease?

 

a) friends in hospital
b) dentists
c) relatives
d) great-great grandparents

 

a) our fingers
b) mouthwash
c) the Internet
d) carrots

ROLE PLAY

Role  A – The dentist

You think the dentist is the best thing for oral hygiene. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least useful of these (and why): mouthwash, regular brushing or no sweets.

Role  B – Mouthwash

You think mouthwash is the best thing for oral hygiene. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least useful of these (and why): the dentist, regular brushing or no sweets.

Role  C – Regular brushing

You think regular brushing is the best thing for oral hygiene. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least useful of these (and why): mouthwash, the dentist or no sweets.

Role  D – No sweets

You think no sweets is the best thing for oral hygiene. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least useful of these (and why):  mouthwash, regular brushing or the dentist.





AFTER READING / LISTENING

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words 'gum' and 'disease'.

gum

disease

 

 

 

  • Share your findings with your partners.
  • Make questions using the words you found.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

  • Share your questions with other classmates / groups.
  • Ask your partner / group your questions.

3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

  • new
  • 303
  • west
  • 5
  • 30
  • back
  • main
  • worse
  • 2,000
  • see
  • eat
  • regular

TEETH AND GUMS SURVEY

Write five GOOD questions about teeth and gums in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper.

When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

 

STUDENT 1

_____________

STUDENT 2

_____________

STUDENT 3

_____________

Q.1.

 

 

 

 

Q.2.

 

 

 

 

Q.3.

 

 

 

 

Q.4.

 

 

 

 

Q.5.

 

 

 

 

  • Now return to your original partner and share and talk about what you found out. Change partners often.
  • Make mini-presentations to other groups on your findings.

TEETH AND GUMS DISCUSSION

STUDENT A's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

1)

What did you think when you read the headline?

2)

What springs to mind when you hear the word 'gum'?

3)

What do you do to look after your gums?

4)

Are you surprised by what you read?

5)

Why did people have better teeth 2,000 years ago?

6)

How important is it to care for your teeth and gums?

7)

What kind of condition are your teeth and gums in?

8)

Is it easy to look after your teeth and gums?

9)

What would you like to change about your teeth and gums?

10)

What do you think of going to the dentist?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

11)

Did you like reading this article? Why/not?

12)

What do you know about gums?

13)

Why don't people know that smoking is bad for your gums?

14)

Who should tell us about oral hygiene?

15)

What things about your teeth do you worry about?

16)

What would you do if your teeth fell out?

17)

How does reading this article make you feel about your teeth?

18)

How can our teeth survive without toothpaste and brushing?

19)

How important is it to floss and use mouthwash?

20)

What questions would you like to ask the researchers?





DISCUSSION (Write your own questions)

STUDENT A's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

STUDENT B's QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

1.

________________________________________________________

2.

________________________________________________________

3.

________________________________________________________

4.

________________________________________________________

5.

________________________________________________________

6.

________________________________________________________

LANGUAGE - CLOZE

A new study (1) ____ that people today have more gum disease than people living 2,000 years ago. The study is from the university King's College in London and is (2) ____ in the 'British Dental Journal'. Researchers looked at the teeth in the skulls (3) ____ 303 people who lived between 200-400 AD (2,200-2,400 years ago). The skulls were found at an old burial (4) ____ in the west of England. The researchers found that only 5 per cent of the skulls showed signs of gum disease. Up to 30 per cent of people in England today have gum disease. Professor Francis Hughes was (5) ____ by what he found. He said people did not have toothbrushes or toothpaste back (6) ____ and did not visit dentists, like we do today.

The (7) ____ reason why modern people have more gum disease is smoking. Theya Molleson, co-author of the report, said the study shows that people's oral health has (8) ____ much worse over the past 2,000 years. She added that she thinks gum disease could start (9) ____ down from now as more people stop smoking. She said: "As smoking declines in the population, we should see a (10) ____ in the [numbers of people with] the disease." Gum disease happens when bacteria build up in your mouth. The bacteria (11) ____ away at your gums and can make your teeth fall out. People can reduce the risk of gum disease by regular brushing, using mouthwash and (12) ____ smoking.

Put the correct words from the table below in the above article.

1.

(a)

showing

(b)

shows

(c)

show

(d)

show off

2.

(a)

publication

(b)

published

(c)

publisher

(d)

publishes

3.

(a)

by

(b)

for

(c)

at

(d)

of

4.

(a)

land

(b)

site

(c)

earth

(d)

location

5.

(a)

surprising

(b)

surprised

(c)

surprises

(d)

surprise

6.

(a)

them

(b)

there

(c)

then

(d)

these

7.

(a)

mast

(b)

most

(c)

main

(d)

meant

8.

(a)

becoming

(b)

became

(c)

become

(d)

becomes

9.

(a)

leaving

(b)

showing

(c)

becoming

(d)

going

10.

(a)

decline

(b)

declining

(c)

declined

(d)

declines

11.

(a)

eat

(b)

drink

(c)

consume

(d)

attack

12.

(a)

nor

(b)

non

(c)

not

(d)

now

SPELLING

Paragraph 1

1.

liphesubd in the 'British Dental Journal'

2.

the luskls of 303 people

3.

an old iabulr site

4.

Hughes was pirrseusd by what he found

5.

He said people did not have hstbtehsrouo

6.

visit sdstneti

Paragraph 2

7.

The main nreaos why

8.

people's laro health

9.

in the outoippnal

10.

we should see a deeilnc in the numbers

11.

cbatraei builds up in your mouth

12.

alrrgue brushing

PUT THE TEXT BACK TOGETHER

Number these lines in the correct order.

(    )

ago. The study is from the university King's College in London and is published in the

(    )

200-400 AD (2,200-2,400 years ago). The skulls were found at an old burial site in the west

(    )

of England. The researchers found that only 5 per cent of the skulls showed signs of gum disease. Up to 30 per cent

(    )

of people in England today have gum disease. Professor Francis Hughes was surprised by what

(    )

mouth. The bacteria eat away at your gums and can make your teeth fall out. People can reduce

(    )

The main reason why modern people have more gum disease is smoking. Theya Molleson, co-author of the

(    )

people with] the disease." Gum disease happens when bacteria build up in your

(    )

report, said the study shows that people's oral health has become much worse over the past

1  )

A new study shows that people today have more gum disease than people living 2,000 years

(    )

he found. He said people did not have toothbrushes or toothpaste back then and did not visit dentists, like we do today.

(    )

'British Dental Journal'. Researchers looked at the teeth in the skulls of 303 people who lived between

(    )

the risk of gum disease by regular brushing, using mouthwash and not smoking.

(    )

2,000 years. She added that she thinks gum disease could start going down from now as more people stop

(    )

smoking. She said: "As smoking declines in the population, we should see a decline in the [numbers of

PUT THE WORDS IN THE RIGHT ORDER

1.

shows   that   people   today   have   more   gum  disease   A   study   .

2.

the    teeth    in    the    skulls    of    303    people    Looked    at   .

3.

skulls    at    burial    The    found    old    were    an    site   .

4.

5%   Only    disease   gum    of   signs   showed   skulls    the    of   .

5.

,    do    Did    dentists    we    visit    like    today    not   .

6.

disease   main    people    gum    The    why    more    reason    have   .

7.

health    Shows    has    that    become    people's    worse    oral   .

8.

start    thinks    going    gum    down    disease    could    She   .

9.

people    with    the    disease   A    decline    in   the    numbers    of   .   

10.

risk    disease    brushing    the    gum    regular    Reduce    of    by   .

CIRCLE THE CORRECT WORD (20 PAIRS)

A new study / studious shows that people today have more gum disease than people living / lived 2,000 years ago. The study is from the university King's College in London and is publication / published in the 'British Dental Journal'. Researchers looked at the tooth / teeth in the skulls of 303 people who lived between 200-400 AD (2,200-2,400 years ago). The skulls were found at an old burial / bury site in the west on / of England. The researchers found that only 5 per cent of the skulls showed / shows signs of gum disease. Up to 30 per cent of people in England today have gum disease. Professor Francis Hughes was surprising / surprised by what he found. He said people did not have toothbrushes or toothpaste before / back then and did not drop by / visit dentists, like we do today.

The main reason / reasons why modern people have more gum disease is smoking / smoked. Theya Molleson, co-author of the reporting / report, said the study shows that people's oral / aural health has become much worse over the passed / past 2,000 years. She added that she thinks gum disease could start going down from / by now as more people stop smoking. She said: "As smoking declines in / on the population, we should see a decline in the [numbers of people for / with] the disease." Gum disease happens when bacteria build up in your mouth. The bacteria eat  / bite away at your gums and can make your teeth fall out. People can reduce the risk of gum disease by regulation / regular brushing, using mouthwash and not smoking.

Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.





INSERT THE VOWELS (a, e, i, o, u)

_ n_w st_dy sh_ws th_t p__pl_ t_d_y h_v_ m_r_ g_m d_s__s_ th_n p__pl_ l_v_ng 2,000 y__rs _g_. Th_ st_dy _s fr_m th_ _n_v_rs_ty K_ng's C_ll_g_ _n L_nd_n _nd _s p_bl_sh_d _n th_ 'Br_t_sh D_nt_l J__rn_l'. R_s__rch_rs l__k_d _t th_ t__th _n th_ sk_lls _f 303 p__pl_ wh_ l_v_d b_tw__n 200-400 _D (2,200-2,400 y__rs _g_). Th_ sk_lls w_r_ f__nd _t _n _ld b_r__l s_t_ _n th_ w_st _f _ngl_nd. Th_ r_s__rch_rs f__nd th_t _nly 5 p_r c_nt _f th_ sk_lls sh_w_d s_gns _f g_m d_s__s_. _p t_ 30 p_r c_nt _f p__pl_ _n _ngl_nd t_d_y h_v_ g_m d_s__s_. Pr_f_ss_r Fr_nc_s H_gh_s w_s s_rpr_s_d by wh_t h_ f__nd. H_ s__d p__pl_ d_d n_t h_v_ t__thbr_sh_s _r t__thp_st_ b_ck th_n _nd d_d n_t v_s_t d_nt_sts, l_k_ w_ d_ t_d_y.

Th_ m__n r__s_n why m_d_rn p__pl_ h_v_ m_r_ g_m d_s__s_ _s sm_k_ng. Th_y_ M_ll_s_n, c_-__th_r _f th_ r_p_rt, s__d th_ st_dy sh_ws th_t p__pl_'s _r_l h__lth h_s b_c_m_ m_ch w_rs_ _v_r th_ p_st 2,000 y__rs. Sh_ _dd_d th_t sh_ th_nks g_m d_s__s_ c__ld st_rt g__ng d_wn fr_m n_w _s m_r_ p__pl_ st_p sm_k_ng. Sh_ s__d: "_s sm_k_ng d_cl_n_s _n th_ p_p_l_t__n, w_ sh__ld s__ _ d_cl_n_ _n th_ [n_mb_rs _f p__pl_ w_th] th_ d_s__s_." G_m d_s__s_ h_pp_ns wh_n b_ct_r__ b__ld _p _n y__r m__th. Th_ b_ct_r__ __t _w_y _t y__r g_ms _nd c_n m_k_ y__r t__th f_ll __t. P__pl_ c_n r_d_c_ th_ r_sk _f g_m d_s__s_ by r_g_l_r br_sh_ng, _s_ng m__thw_sh _nd n_t sm_k_ng.

PUNCTUATE THE TEXT AND ADD CAPITALS

a new study shows that people today have more gum disease than people living 2000 years ago the study is from the university king's college in london and is published in the 'british dental journal' researchers looked at the teeth in the skulls of 303 people who lived between 200-400 ad (2200-2400 years ago) the skulls were found at an old burial site in the west of england the researchers found that only 5 per cent of the skulls showed signs of gum disease up to 30 per cent of people in england today have gum disease professor francis hughes was surprised by what he found he said people did not have toothbrushes or toothpaste back then and did not visit dentists like we do today

the main reason why modern people have more gum disease is smoking theya molleson co-author of the report said the study shows that people's oral health has become much worse over the past 2000 years she added that she thinks gum disease could start going down from now as more people stop smoking she said "as smoking declines in the population we should see a decline in the [numbers of people with] the disease" gum disease happens when bacteria build up in your mouth the bacteria eat away at your gums and can make your teeth fall out people can reduce the risk of gum disease by regular brushing using mouthwash and not smoking





PUT A SLASH ( / ) WHERE THE SPACES ARE

Anewstudyshowsthatpeopletodayhavemoregumdiseasethanpeople
living2,000yearsago.ThestudyisfromtheuniversityKing'sCollegeinL
ondonandispublishedinthe'BritishDentalJournal'.Researcherslooke
dattheteethintheskullsof303peoplewholivedbetween200-400AD(2
,200-2,400yearsago).Theskullswerefoundatanoldburialsiteinthew
estofEngland.Theresearchersfoundthatonly5percentoftheskullssho
wedsignsofgumdisease.Upto30percentofpeopleinEnglandtodayhav
egumdisease.ProfessorFrancisHugheswassurprisedbywhathefound
.Hesaidpeopledidnothavetoothbrushesortoothpastebackthenanddi
dnotvisitdentists,likewedotoday.Themainreasonwhymodernpeople
havemoregumdiseaseissmoking.TheyaMolleson,co-authoroft
hereport,saidthestudyshowsthatpeople'soralhealthhasbecomemuc
hworseoverthepast2,000years.Sheaddedthatshethinksgumdisease
couldstartgoingdownfromnowasmorepeoplestopsmoking.Shesaid:
"Assmokingdeclinesinthepopulation,weshouldseeadeclineinthe[nu
mbersofpeoplewith]thedisease."Gumdiseasehappenswhenbacteria
buildupinyourmouth.Thebacteriaeatawayatyourgumsandcanmake
yourteethfallout.Peoplecanreducetheriskofgumdiseasebyregularbr
ushing,usingmouthwashandnotsmoking.

FREE WRITING

Write about teeth and gums for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner's paper.

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ACADEMIC WRITING

It is better to clean your teeth four times a day than two times a day. Discuss.

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HOMEWORK

1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.

2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about teeth and gums. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.

3. TEETH AND GUMS: Make a poster about teeth and gums. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?

4. ORAL HEALTH: Write a magazine article about oral health. Include imaginary interviews with people who have bad teeth and with dentists.

Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).

5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.

6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on teeth and gums. Ask him/her three questions about teeth and gums. Give him/her three of your ideas on how we can look after them better. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

ANSWERS

TRUE / FALSE (p.4)

a

T

b

F

c

T

d

F

e

T

f

F

g

T

h

F

SYNONYM MATCH (p.4)

1.

study

a.

research

2.

published

b.

printed

3.

old

c.

ancient

4.

signs

d.

evidence

5.

visit

e.

go to

6.

main

f.

biggest

7.

much

g.

a lot

8.

declines

h.

goes down

9.

reduce

i.

lower

10.

regular

j.

frequent

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS (p.8)

1.

King's College

2.

303

3.

The west

4.

30%

5.

The dentist

6.

Smoking

7.

Oral health

8.

Gum disease would decline (go down)

9.

Gums

10.

Mouthwash

MULTIPLE CHOICE - QUIZ (p.9)

1.

b

2.

d

3.

a

4.

c

5.

b

6.

c

7.

d

8.

a

9.

a

10.

b

ALL OTHER EXERCISES

Please check for yourself by looking at the Article on page 2.
(It's good for your English ;-)

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