The Reading / Listening - Freshwater - Level 6

The USA's space agency NASA has confirmed that human activity is responsible for a massive redistribution of freshwater across Earth. It said the redistribution is continuing as populations shift and demand for food increases. In particular, equatorial regions were drying, while tropical areas and higher latitudes were gaining water supplies. NASA warned that if this trend continued, many highly populated urban areas could struggle to find sufficient water in the future. NASA's claims are the result of a 14-year study into shifting locations and depleting resources of freshwater. It was part of a mission conducted between 2002-2016 called GRACE, which is an acronym for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment.



Researchers say that the shifting freshwater patterns are the result of human activity. Jay Famiglietti, a co-author of the research and the Senior Water Scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said: "The study shows that humans have really drastically altered the global water landscape in a very profound way." He warned that: "The human fingerprint is all over changing freshwater availability. We see it in large-scale overuse of groundwater. We see it as a driver of climate change." Professor Famiglietti said at least 40 per cent of the 34 hot areas examined in the research were drier than two decades ago because of human activity, especially excessive groundwater pumping for farming.

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Freshwater - Level 4  or  Freshwater - Level 5

Sources
  • https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2018/05/16/humans-are-causing-massive-changes-in-the-location-of-water-all-over-the-earth-nasa-says/
  • https://weather.com/science/environment/news/2018-05-17-nasa-satellites-human-fingerprint-shifts-global-freshwater
  • https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-satellites-reveal-major-shifts-in-global-freshwater


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. FRESHWATER: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about freshwater. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       space / agency / responsible / massive / equator / tropical / urban / resources / water
       patterns  human / activity / research / profound / fingerprint / availability / farming
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. WATER WARS: Students A strongly believe there will be wars over water in the future; Students B strongly believe there won't.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. RESOURCES: Are we in danger of using up Earth's resources? What would happen if we did? What can we do now? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.


Resource

In danger?

Why?

Consequences

Solutions

Freshwater

 

 

 

 

Oil

 

 

 

 

Tuna

 

 

 

 

Coal

 

 

 

 

Cocoa

 

 

 

 

Honey

 

 

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. EARTH: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "Earth". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. CONSERVATION: Rank these with your partner. Put what/who should conserve water most at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • Farmers
  • Water parks
  • Car washes
  • City fountains
  • Parks
  • Homeowners
  • Industry
  • Golf courses

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. massive a. Strive to achieve or get something in the face of difficulty or resistance.
      2. equatorial b. Enough; adequate.
      3. latitude c. Very, very, very large.
      4. struggle d. An abbreviation formed from the initial letters of other words and pronounced as a word.
      5. sufficient e. Of, at, or near the equator (the imaginary line that goes round the middle of Earth).
      6. depleting f. A line that goes from north to south on Earth.
      7. acronym g. Using up the supply or resources of something.

    Paragraph 2

      8. shifting h. More than is necessary, normal, or desirable.
      9. drastically i. Changing, especially unpredictably.
      10. altered j. In a way that is likely to have a strong or far-reaching effect.
      11. profound k. The action of using something too much.
      12. overuse l. Very great or intense.
      13. driver m. Changed or caused to change in character or form, typically in a small but important way.
      14. excessive n. Something which causes a particular phenomenon to happen or develop.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. NASA conducted research into Earth's shifting water resources.     T / F
  2. The tropics are becoming drier because of climate change.     T / F
  3. No urban areas will have a problem getting water supplies.     T / F
  4. GRACE means Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment.     T / F
  5. An author of the research works at a jet propulsion lab.     T / F
  6. An author said our fingerprints have changed water distribution.     T / F
  7. Over 40% of hot areas tested were drier than they were 20 years ago.    T / F
  8. Farmers have not been pumping up too much groundwater.     T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. confirmed
  2. massive
  3. shift
  4. trend
  5. depleting
  6. result
  7. drastically
  8. profound
  9. large-scale
  10. excessive
  1. far-reaching
  2. move
  3. consequence
  4. disproportionate
  5. enormous
  6. extensive
  7. movement
  8. verified
  9. seriously
  10. exhausting

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. NASA has confirmed that human activity
  2. a massive redistribution
  3. equatorial
  4. tropical areas
  5. many highly
  6. drastically
  7. in a very profound
  8. the human
  9. We see it as a driver
  10. excessive groundwater pumping
  1. regions
  2. fingerprint
  3. of climate change
  4. populated urban areas
  5. way
  6. is responsible
  7. for farming
  8. of freshwater
  9. altered
  10. and higher latitudes

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
shift
mission
trend
confirmed
acronym
areas
massive
result

The USA's space agency NASA has (1) ____________ that human activity is responsible for a (2) ____________ redistribution of freshwater across Earth. It said the redistribution is continuing as populations (3) ____________ and demand for food increases. In particular, equatorial regions were drying, while tropical (4) ____________ and higher latitudes were gaining water supplies. NASA warned that if this (5) ____________ continued, many highly populated urban areas could struggle to find sufficient water in the future. NASA's claims are the (6) ____________ of a 14-year study into shifting locations and depleting resources of freshwater. It was part of a (7) ____________ conducted between 2002-2016 called GRACE, which is an (8) ____________ for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment.

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
co-author
drastically
drier
overuse
pumping
patterns
driver
fingerprint

Researchers say that the shifting freshwater (9) ____________ are the result of human activity. Jay Famiglietti, a (10) ____________ of the research and the Senior Water Scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said: "The study shows that humans have really (11) ____________ altered the global water landscape in a very profound way." He warned that: "The human (12) ____________ is all over changing freshwater availability. We see it in large-scale (13) ____________ of groundwater. We see it as a (14) ____________ of climate change." Professor Famiglietti said at least 40 per cent of the 34 hot areas examined in the research were (15) ____________ than two decades ago because of human activity, especially excessive groundwater (16) ____________ for farming.

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)  NASA has confirmed that human activity is responsible ______ redistribution
     a.  for a massively
     b.  for a massive
     c.  for a missive
     d.  for a mass sieve
2)  the redistribution is continuing as populations shift and demand ______
     a.  for food increase
     b.  for food increased
     c.  for food increase is
     d.  for food increases
3) equatorial regions were drying, while tropical areas and higher ______ gaining
     a.  platitudes were
     b.  multitudes were
     c.  attitudes were
     d.  latitudes were
4) many highly populated urban areas could struggle to ______ water
     a.  find surf fishing
     b.  find surf-fissure
     c.  find suffer shan't
     d.  find sufficient
5) the result of a 14-year study into shifting locations and ______
     a.  depleting resources
     b.  depletion resources
     c.  deplete in resources
     d.  deep pleat in resources

6)  Researchers say that the shifting freshwater patterns are the ______ activity
     a.  results of humane
     b.  resultant of human
     c.  result of human
     d.  result of humane
7)  really drastically altered the global water landscape in a very ______
     a.  prefund way
     b.  proof-found way
     c.  prof round way
     d.  profound way
8)  He warned that: "The human fingerprint is all over changing ______."
     a.  freshwater availability
     b.  freshly water available
     c.  fresher water availability
     d.  refresh water available
9)  We see it in large-scale overuse of groundwater. We see it as ______ climate change
     a.  add raver of
     b.  a driven off
     c.  a driver of
     d.  add river of
10)  because of human activity, especially excessive groundwater ______
     a.  pump in for farming
     b.  pump ping for farming
     c.  plumping for farming
     d.  pumping for farming

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

The USA's space agency NASA has confirmed that human activity is responsible (1) ___________________ redistribution of freshwater across Earth. It said the redistribution is continuing (2) ___________________ and demand for food increases. In particular, equatorial regions were drying, while tropical areas (3) ___________________ were gaining water supplies. NASA warned that if this trend continued, many highly populated urban areas could (4) ___________________ sufficient water in the future. NASA's claims are the result of a 14-year study (5) ___________________ and depleting resources of freshwater. It was part of a mission conducted between 2002-2016 called GRACE, which (6) ___________________ for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment.

Researchers say that the shifting freshwater (7) ___________________ result of human activity. Jay Famiglietti, a co-author (8) ___________________ and the Senior Water Scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said: "The study shows that humans have really (9) ___________________ global water landscape in a very profound way." He warned that: "The human fingerprint is all over changing freshwater availability. We see (10) ___________________ overuse of groundwater. We see it (11) ___________________ of climate change." Professor Famiglietti said at least 40 per cent of the 34 hot areas examined in the research were drier than (12) ___________________ because of human activity, especially excessive groundwater pumping for farming.

Comprehension questions

  1. What is the name of the organization that did the research?
  2. Which regions are drying?
  3. Which areas are gaining water?
  4. How long did the study take?
  5. What does GRACE mean?
  6. What is Jay Famiglietti's job title?
  7. In what way did a professor say humans changed water resources?
  8. What did a professor say the overuse of groundwater was a driver of?
  9. How many hot areas did the researchers look at?
  10. What is responsible for pumping groundwater excessively?




Multiple choice quiz

1) What is the name of the organization that did the research?
a) NUS
b) NATO
c) NASA
d) NAFTA
2) Which regions are drying?
a) equatorial regions
b) Antarctica
c) deserts
d) the tropics
3) Which areas are gaining water?
a) Antarctica
b) tropical areas
c) deserts
d) mountainous areas
4) How long did the study take?
a) 18 months
b) 40 years
c) 12 years
d) 14 years
5) What does GRACE mean?
a) Gravity Recovery and Climate Error
b) Gravity Recovery and CO2 Experiment
c) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment
d) Great Recovery and Climate Experiment

6) What is Jay Famiglietti's job title?
a) Chief Writer
b) Senior Water Scientist
c) CEO
d) Environmentalist
7) In what way did a professor say humans changed water resources?
a) in a dangerous way
b) in a roundabout way
c) in a sly way
d) in a profound way
8) What did a professor say the overuse of groundwater was a driver of?
a) overpopulation
b) climate change
c) desertification
d) growth
9) How many hot areas did the researchers look at?
a) 32
b) 34
c) 33
d) 35
10) What is responsible for pumping groundwater excessively?
a) farming
b) gold courses
c) water parks
d) industry

Role play

Role  A – Homeowners
You think homeowners have the biggest responsibility to conserve water. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things don't have to conserve water. Also, tell the others which is the least damaging of these (and why): golf courses, farmers or car washes.

Role  B – Gold Courses
You think golf courses have the biggest responsibility to conserve water. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things don't have to conserve water. Also, tell the others which is the least damaging of these (and why): homeowners, farmers or car washes.

Role  C – Farmers
You think farmers have the biggest responsibility to conserve water. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things don't have to conserve water. Also, tell the others which is the least damaging of these (and why): golf courses, homeowners or car washes.

Role  D – Car Washes
You think car washes have the biggest responsibility to conserve water. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them why their things don't have to conserve water. Also, tell the others which is the least damaging of these (and why): golf courses, farmers or homeowners.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'fresh'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'water'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • patterns
    • shows
    • way
    • scale
    • 34
    • pumping
    • confirmed
    • continuing
    • while
    • areas
    • 14
    • called




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - Humans causing big shifts in freshwater locations

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'fresh'?
    3. Do you take having freshwater for granted?
    4. What do you think of having to buy water?
    5. What would you do if water was scarcer?
    6. How can we use less water?
    7. Who or what should use much less water?
    8. What will happen to populated areas without water?
    9. Why do we need so much water?
    10. How fresh is the water in your area?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'water'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. Should humans change all activity to conserve water?
    5. How have humans "drastically altered the global water landscape"?
    6. Should there be a big tax on water use?
    7. What do you think of the taste of freshwater?
    8. What do you think of bottled water?
    9. What three adjectives best describe water?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the scientists?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    The USA's space agency NASA has (1) ____ that human activity is responsible for a massive redistribution of freshwater across Earth. It said the redistribution is continuing as populations (2) ____ and demand for food increases. In particular, equatorial regions were drying, while (3) ____ areas and higher latitudes were gaining water supplies. NASA warned that if this trend continued, many highly populated (4) ____ areas could struggle to find sufficient water in the future. NASA's claims are the result of a 14-year study (5) ____ shifting locations and depleting resources of freshwater. It was part of a mission conducted between 2002-2016 called GRACE, which is an (6) ____ for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment.

    Researchers say that the shifting freshwater (7) ____ are the result of human activity. Jay Famiglietti, a co-author of the research and the Senior Water Scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said: "The study shows that humans have really (8) ____ altered the global water landscape in a very profound way." He warned that: "The human (9) ____ is all over changing freshwater availability. We see it in large-scale overuse of groundwater. We see it as a (10) ____ of climate change." Professor Famiglietti said at (11) ____ 40 per cent of the 34 hot areas examined in the research were drier than two decades ago because of human activity, especially (12) ____ groundwater pumping for farming.

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     confirmed     (b)     conformed     (c)     confined     (d)     confounded    
    2. (a)     shaft     (b)     sieve     (c)     shift     (d)     sift    
    3. (a)     topical     (b)     typical     (c)     tropical     (d)     tapioca    
    4. (a)     urbane     (b)     suburban     (c)     blurb     (d)     urban    
    5. (a)     onto     (b)     unto     (c)     into     (d)     as to    
    6. (a)     unison     (b)     acronym     (c)     affair     (d)     impotent    
    7. (a)     mosaics     (b)     patterns     (c)     templates     (d)     designs    
    8. (a)     caustically     (b)     drastically     (c)     plastically     (d)     elastically    
    9. (a)     newsprint     (b)     blueprint     (c)     fingerprint     (d)     hoofprint    
    10. (a)     devil     (b)     diver     (c)     deliver     (d)     driver    
    11. (a)     lust     (b)     last     (c)     lest     (d)     least    
    12. (a)     exultant     (b)     exemplary     (c)     expressive     (d)     excessive

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. responsible for a ssmeavi redistribution
    2. aqertloiau regions were drying
    3. struggle to find efsfcinitu water
    4. shifting locations and pnleegidt resources
    5. It was part of a mniisos conducted between 2002-2016
    6. called GRACE, which is an royncma

    Paragraph 2

    1. shifting freshwater tertpsan
    2. really rlalytcdias altered
    3. in a very oourfnpd way
    4. large-scale uerosev of groundwater
    5. drier than two ededsac ago
    6. especially exesveisc groundwater pumping

    Put the text back together

    (...)  supplies. NASA warned that if this trend continued, many highly populated urban
    (...)  of freshwater across Earth. It said the redistribution is continuing as populations shift and demand for food
    (...)  scale overuse of groundwater. We see it as a driver of climate change." Professor Famiglietti said at
    (...)  conducted between 2002-2016 called GRACE, which is an acronym for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment.
    (...)  14-year study into shifting locations and depleting resources of freshwater. It was part of a mission
    (...)  way." He warned that: "The human fingerprint is all over changing freshwater availability. We see it in large-
    1  ) The USA's space agency NASA has confirmed that human activity is responsible for a massive redistribution
    (...)  Researchers say that the shifting freshwater patterns are the result of human activity. Jay Famiglietti, a co-author of the
    (...)  shows that humans have really drastically altered the global water landscape in a very profound
    (...)  least 40 per cent of the 34 hot areas examined in the research were drier than two
    (...)  decades ago because of human activity, especially excessive groundwater pumping for farming.
    (...)  research and the Senior Water Scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said: "The study
    (...)  areas could struggle to find sufficient water in the future. NASA's claims are the result of a
    (...)  increases. In particular, equatorial regions were drying, while tropical areas and higher latitudes were gaining water

    Put the words in the right order

    1. confirmed   activity   has   NASA   human   is   that   responsible   .
    2. massive   redistribution   of   A   Earth   .   freshwater   across
    3. Tropical   latitudes   gaining   water   .   higher   and   areas   were
    4. populated   could   Many   struggle   .   areas   highly   urban
    5. part   It   mission   a   between   was   2002-2016   conducted   of
    6. water   Humans   have   drastically   altered   global   the   landscape   .
    7. all   fingerprint   is   changing   The   human   over   availability   .
    8. of   We   large-scale   in   see   groundwater   .   it   overuse
    9. were   examined   decades   ago   .   drier   Areas   two   than
    10. for   Especially   groundwater   farming   .   excessive   pumping

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    The USA's space agency NASA has conformed / confirmed that human activity is responsible for a missive / massive redistribution of freshwater across Earth. It said the redistribution is continuing / continuance as populations shift and demand for food increases. In particular / peculiar, equatorial regions were drying, while topical / tropical areas and higher latitudes were gaining water supplies. NASA warmed / warned that if this trend continued, many highly populated urbane / urban areas could struggle to find sufficient water in / on the future. NASA's claims are the result of a 14-year study into shifting locations / locale and depleting resources of freshwater. It was part of a mission conducted between 2002-2016 called GRACE, which / what is an acronym for Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment.

    Researchers say that the / a shifting freshwater patterns are the result of human / humane activity. Jay Famiglietti, a co-author of the research and the Senior Water Scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said: "The studious / study shows that humans have really / reality drastically altered the global water landscape in a very profound / profoundly way." He warned that: "The human fingerprint is every / all over changing freshwater availability. We see it in large-scale overuse of groundwater. We see it as a driver / driven of climate change." Professor Famiglietti said at least 40 per cent of the 34 hot areas examined on / in the research were drier than two decades / decadence ago because of human activity, especially recessive / excessive groundwater pumping for farming.

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    T h_ U S A ' s s p_c_ _g_n c y N A S A h_s c_n f_r m_d t h_t h_m_n _c t_v_t y _s r_s p_n s_b l_ f_r _ m_s s_v_ r_d_s t r_b_t__ n _f f r_s h w_t_r _c r_s s E_r t h . I t s__ d t h_ r_d_s t r_b_t__ n _s c_n t_n__ n g _s p_p_l_t__ n s s h_f t _n d d_m_n d f_r f__ d _n c r__ s_s . I n p_r t_c_l_r , _q__ t_r__ l r_g__ n s w_r_ d r y_n g , w h_l_ t r_p_c_l _r__ s _n d h_g h_r l_t_t_d_s w_r_ g__ n_n g w_t_r s_p p l__ s . N A S A w_r n_d t h_t _f t h_s t r_n d c_n t_n__ d , m_n y h_g h l y p_p_l_t_d _r b_n _r__ s c__ l d s t r_g g l_ t_ f_n d s_f f_c__ n t w_t_r _n t h_ f_t_r_. N A S A ' s c l__ m s _r_ t h_ r_s_l t _f _ 1 4 - y__ r s t_d y _n t_ s h_f t_n g l_c_t__ n s _n d d_p l_t_n g r_s__ r c_s _f f r_s h w_t_r . I t w_s p_r t _f _ m_s s__ n c_n d_c t_d b_t w__ n 2 0 0 2 - 2 0 1 6 c_l l_d G R A C E , w h_c h _s _n _c r_n y m f_r G r_v_t y R_c_v_r y _n d C l_m_t_ E x p_r_m_n t .

    R_s__ r c h_r s s_y t h_t t h_ s h_f t_n g f r_s h w_t_r p_t t_r n s _r_ t h_ r_s_l t _f h_m_n _c t_v_t y . J_y F_m_g l__ t t_, _ c_-__ t h_r _f t h_ r_s__ r c h _n d t h_ S_n__ r W_t_r S c__ n t_s t _t N A S A ' s J_t P r_p_l s__ n L_b_r_t_r y , s__ d : " T h_ s t_d y s h_w s t h_t h_m_n s h_v_ r__ l l y d r_s t_c_l l y _l t_r_d t h_ g l_b_l w_t_r l_n d s c_p_ _n _ v_r y p r_f__ n d w_y . " H_ w_r n_d t h_t : " T h_ h_m_n f_n g_r p r_n t _s _l l _v_r c h_n g_n g f r_s h w_t_r _v__ l_b_l_t y . W_ s__ _t _n l_r g_- s c_l_ _v_r_s_ _f g r__ n d w_t_r . W_ s__ _t _s _ d r_v_r _f c l_m_t_ c h_n g_. " P r_f_s s_r F_m_g l__ t t_ s__ d _t l__ s t 4 0 p_r c_n t _f t h_ 3 4 h_t _r__ s _x_m_n_d _n t h_ r_s__ r c h w_r_ d r__ r t h_n t w_ d_c_d_s _g_ b_c__ s_ _f h_m_n _c t_v_t y , _s p_c__ l l y _x c_s s_v_ g r__ n d w_t_r p_m p_n g f_r f_r m_n g .

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    the usas space agency nasa has confirmed that human activity is responsible for a massive redistribution of freshwater across earth it said the redistribution is continuing as populations shift and demand for food increases in particular equatorial regions were drying while tropical areas and higher latitudes were gaining water supplies nasa warned that if this trend continued many highly populated urban areas could struggle to find sufficient water in the future nasas claims are the result of a 14year study into shifting locations and depleting resources of freshwater it was part of a mission conducted between 2002-2016 called grace which is an acronym for gravity recovery and climate experiment

    researchers say that the shifting freshwater patterns are the result of human activity jay famiglietti a coauthor of the research and the senior water scientist at nasas jet propulsion laboratory said the study shows that humans have really drastically altered the global water landscape in a very profound way he warned that the human fingerprint is all over changing freshwater availability we see it in largescale overuse of groundwater we see it as a driver of climate change professor famiglietti said at least 40 per cent of the 34 hot areas examined in the research were drier than two decades ago because of human activity especially excessive groundwater pumping for farming

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    TheUSA'sspaceagencyNASAhasconfirmedthathumanactivityisrespo
    nsibleforamassiveredistributionoffreshwateracrossEarth.Itsaidther
    edistributioniscontinuingaspopulationsshiftanddemandforfoodincre
    ases.Inparticular,equatorialregionsweredrying,whiletropicalareasa
    ndhigherlatitudesweregainingwatersupplies.NASAwarnedthatifthis
    trendcontinued,manyhighlypopulatedurbanareascouldstruggletofin
    dsufficientwaterinthefuture.NASA'sclaimsaretheresultofa14-years
    tudyintoshiftinglocationsanddepletingresourcesoffreshwater.Itwas
    partofamissionconductedbetween2002-2016calledGRACE,whichis
    anacronymforGravityRecoveryandClimateExperiment.Researchers
    saythattheshiftingfreshwaterpatternsaretheresultofhumanactivity.
    JayFamiglietti,aco-authoroftheresearchandtheSeniorWaterScientis
    tatNASA'sJetPropulsionLaboratory,said:"Thestudyshowsthathuma
    nshavereallydrasticallyalteredtheglobalwaterlandscapeinaveryprof
    oundway."Hewarnedthat:"Thehumanfingerprintisalloverchangingfr
    eshwateravailability.Weseeitinlarge-scaleoveruseofgroundwater.W
    eseeitasadriverofclimatechange."ProfessorFamigliettisaidatleast40
    percentofthe34hotareasexaminedintheresearchweredrierthantwod
    ecadesagobecauseofhumanactivity,especiallyexcessivegroundwat
    erpumpingforfarming.

    Free writing

    Write about the lesson page for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    What are the chances of water wars in the future? How can we stop them?

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. FRESHWATER: Make a poster about freshwater. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. CONSERVATION: Write a magazine article about all governments introducing laws to conserve freshwater. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on freshwater. Ask him/her three questions about it. Give him/her three of your ideas on how we can conserve it. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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