The Reading / Listening - Air Pollution - Level 6

Scientists have revealed that air pollution may be responsible for a significant reduction in intelligence. Research conducted for the World Health Organization (WHO) in China showed that air pollution was responsible for notable falls in student test scores for languages and arithmetic. The Chinese study is called, "The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance". It was published in a journal called, "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences". The study took place over a period of four years. Researchers analyzed verbal and arithmetic tests taken by 20,000 people of all ages. They said: "Polluted air may impede cognitive ability as people become older."



Researchers say their study is a warning to the rest of the world, especially to those who live in cities. The WHO says over 91 per cent of the world population live in areas with toxic air. Air pollution is currently the fourth highest cause of deaths worldwide. The researchers discovered that the longer people were exposed to polluted air, the greater was the damage to their intelligence. They equated the impact of air pollution to losing a year's worth of education. For those aged over 60, this could be the equivalent of several years of lost education. Researcher Dr Xi Chen warned: "There is no shortcut to solve this issue. Governments really need to take concrete measures to reduce air pollution."

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Air Pollution - Level 4  or  Air Pollution - Level 5

Sources
  • https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/air-pollution-intelligence-cognitive-ability-arithmetic-verbal-skills-a8510431.html
  • https://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20180828/world/air-pollution-could-make-you-stupid-new-research-warns.687798
  • https://news.sky.com/story/air-pollution-causes-huge-reduction-in-intelligence-study-suggests-11484039


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. AIR POLLUTION: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about air pollution. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       scientists / reduction / responsible / test scores / impact / exposure / performance /
       warning / the rest of the world / population / damage / intelligence / education / issue
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. POLLUTION: Students A strongly believe air pollution will never go away; Students B strongly believe it will. Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. INTELLIGENCE: How do these things affect people's intelligence? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

How?

Why?

Pollution

 

 

Food

 

 

Teachers

 

 

Parents

 

 

Internet

 

 

Exercise

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. TEST: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "test". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE: Rank these with your partner. Put the best things for improving cognitive performance at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • teachers
  • practice
  • walking
  • exam success
  • studying
  • sleep
  • exercise
  • diet

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. revealed a. The action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.
      2. significant b. Delay or prevent someone or something by obstructing them.
      3. arithmetic c. Made previously unknown or secret information known to others.
      4. impact d. The area of mathematics dealing with adding, subtracting, dividing and multiplying numbers.
      5. exposure e. Great or important enough to be worthy of attention.
      6. cognitive f. The state of having contact with something.
      7. impede g. About the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.

    Paragraph 2

      8. toxic h. At the present time.
      9. currently i. Caused someone to experience or be at risk of.
      10. exposed j. An accelerated or quickened way of doing or achieving something.
      11. equated k. Poisonous.
      12. equivalent l. Specific; definite.
      13. shortcut m. Equal in value, amount, function, meaning, etc.
      14. concrete n. Considered or thought one thing to be the same as or similar to another thing.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. Scientists say air pollution leads to big reductions in intelligence.     T / F
  2. Scientists said pollution reduced language and arithmetic test scores.     T / F
  3. Scientists conducted the research over a four-year period.     T / F
  4. Around 20,000 teenagers took a test in the research.     T / F
  5. About 91% of people live in areas with very polluted air.     T / F
  6. Air pollution is the biggest cause of death worldwide.     T / F
  7. Scientists said air pollution caused a loss of 10 years' education.     T / F
  8. A researcher said there were plenty of shortcuts to solve this problem.    T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. revealed
  2. significant
  3. impact
  4. period
  5. impede
  6. warning
  7. toxic
  8. published
  9. solve
  10. reduce
  1. effect
  2. lessen
  3. hinder
  4. poisonous
  5. serious
  6. issued
  7. shown
  8. work out
  9. timeframe
  10. caution

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. responsible for a significant reduction
  2. notable falls in
  3. cognitive
  4. The study took place over a
  5. impede cognitive ability as people
  6. their study is a warning to the
  7. live in areas with
  8. losing a year's
  9. There is no shortcut to
  10. Governments really need to take concrete
  1. worth of education
  2. period of four years
  3. become older
  4. measures
  5. student test scores
  6. solve this issue
  7. rest of the world
  8. in intelligence
  9. toxic air
  10. performance

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
responsible
journal
older
revealed
cognitive
impede
arithmetic
period

Scientists have (1) ____________ that air pollution may be responsible for a significant reduction in intelligence. Research conducted for the World Health Organization (WHO) in China showed that air pollution was (2) ____________ for notable falls in student test scores for languages and (3) ____________. The Chinese study is called, "The impact of exposure to air pollution on (4) ____________ performance". It was published in a (5) ____________ called, "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences". The study took place over a (6) ____________ of four years. Researchers analyzed verbal and arithmetic tests taken by 20,000 people of all ages. They said: "Polluted air may (7) ____________ cognitive ability as people become (8) ____________."

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
cause
impact
concrete
rest
several
toxic
exposed
worth

Researchers say their study is a warning to the (9) ____________ of the world, especially to those who live in cities. The WHO says over 91 per cent of the world population live in areas with (10) ____________ air. Air pollution is currently the fourth highest (11) ____________ of deaths worldwide. The researchers discovered that the longer people were (12) ____________ to polluted air, the greater was the damage to their intelligence. They equated the (13) ____________ of air pollution to losing a year's (14) ____________ of education. For those aged over 60, this could be the equivalent of (15) ____________ years of lost education. Researcher Dr Xi Chen warned: "There is no shortcut to solve this issue. Governments really need to take (16) ____________ measures to reduce air pollution."

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)  Scientists have revealed that air pollution may be responsible ______ reduction
     a.  for a significance
     b.  for a signify can't
     c.  for a sign if I can't
     d.  for a significant
2)  air pollution was responsible for notable falls in student ______
     a.  tests scores
     b.  test cores
     c.  test scores
     d.  tests cores
3)  The impact of exposure to air pollution ______ performance
     a.  on cognitive
     b.  on cognitively
     c.  in cognitive
     d.  an cognitive
4)  Researchers analyzed verbal and arithmetic tests taken by 20,000 people ______
     a.  of all ages
     b.  off all ages
     c.  of all age is
     d.  of awl ages
5)  Polluted air may impede cognitive ability as people ______
     a.  became older
     b.  become older
     c.  becomes older
     d.  become moldier

6)  The WHO says over 91 per cent of the world population live in areas ______
     a.  with toxic air
     b.  with toxicity air
     c.  with tock sic air
     d.  with tock sick air
7)  The researchers discovered that the longer people were ______ air
     a.  exposed two pollute it
     b.  exposed to polluted
     c.  exposed too polluted
     d.  exposed to pollute it
8)  They equated the impact of air pollution to losing a ______ education
     a.  year's worth off
     b.  year is worth of
     c.  year is worthy of
     d.  year's worth of
9)  this could be the equivalent of several years of ______
     a.  loss education
     b.  lose educational
     c.  lost educational
     d.  lost education
10)  Governments really need to take concrete measures ______ pollution
     a.  to redact air
     b.  to re-deuce air
     c.  to re-juice air
     d.  to reduce air

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

Scientists have (1) ___________________ pollution may be responsible for a significant reduction in intelligence. Research conducted for the World Health Organization (WHO) in China (2) ___________________ pollution was responsible for notable falls in student (3) ___________________ languages and arithmetic. The Chinese study is called, "The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance". It was published (4) ___________________ called, "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences". The study took place (5) ___________________ of four years. Researchers analyzed verbal and arithmetic tests taken by 20,000 people of all ages. They said: "Polluted air may (6) ___________________ as people become older."

Researchers say their study (7) ___________________ to the rest of the world, especially to those who live in cities. The WHO says over 91 per cent of the world population (8) ___________________ with toxic air. Air pollution is currently the fourth highest (9) ___________________ worldwide. The researchers discovered that the longer people were exposed to polluted air, the greater (10) ___________________ to their intelligence. They equated the impact of air pollution to losing a year's worth of education. For those aged over 60, this could be the equivalent (11) ___________________ of lost education. Researcher Dr Xi Chen warned: "There is no shortcut to solve this issue. Governments really need to take (12) ___________________ reduce air pollution."

Comprehension questions

  1. In which country was the research conducted?
  2. In what two subjects did the scientists say test scores fell in?
  3. Where was the study published?
  4. How long was the study?
  5. How old were the people who took part in the research?
  6. What percentage of people in the world lives in areas with toxic air?
  7. What is currently the fourth highest cause of death worldwide?
  8. What was the equivalent loss of education caused by air pollution?
  9. Who might lose several years of education because of air pollution?
  10. What did a researcher say governments needed to take?




Multiple choice quiz

1)  In which country was the research conducted?
a) China
b) the USA
c) India
d) Brazil
2)  In what two subjects did the scientists say test scores fell in?
a) history and geography
b) sports and dance
c) languages and arithmetic
d) physics and biology
3)  Where was the study published?
a) California
b) in a newspaper
c) the Internet
d) a journal
4)  How long was the study?
a) 14 years
b) 4 years
c) 4 months
d) 40 months
5)  How old were the people who took part in the research?
a) all ages
b) middle-aged
c) in their teens
d) over 60

6)  What percentage of people in the world lives in areas with toxic air?
a) about 91%
b) under 91%
c) around 91%
d) over 91%
7)  What is currently the fourth highest cause of death worldwide?
a) viruses
b) war
c) air pollution
d) cancer
8)  What was the equivalent loss of education caused by air pollution?
a) 10% lower test scores
b) one year's worth of education
c) one day a week
d) 289 litres
9)  Who might lose several years of education because of air pollution?
a) farmers
b) city dwellers
c) people over 60
d) teenagers
10)  What did a researcher say governments needed to take?
a) money
b) concrete measures
c) chimneys
d) more time

Role play

Role  A – Sleep
You think sleep is the best thing for improving cognitive performance. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least effective of these (and why): exercise, diet or exam success.

Role  B – Exercise
You think exercise is the best thing for improving cognitive performance. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least effective of these (and why): sleep, diet or exam success.

Role  C – Diet
You think diet is the best thing for improving cognitive performance. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least effective of these (and why): exercise, sleep or exam success.

Role  D – Exam Success
You think exam success is the best thing for improving cognitive performance. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least effective of these (and why): exercise, diet or sleep.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'air'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'pollution'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • rest
    • areas
    • fourth
    • worth
    • 60
    • concrete
    • may
    • falls
    • published
    • period
    • taken
    • impede




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - Air pollution damages intelligence, says study

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'air'?
    3. What is the air quality like where you live?
    4. What problems does air pollution cause?
    5. What causes air pollution?
    6. What do you do that contributes to air pollution?
    7. How would society change if people became less intelligent?
    8. How good are you at arithmetic and languages?
    9. How worried are you about air pollution?
    10. How intelligent are you?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'pollution'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. Would you move house to avoid air pollution?
    5. Do we need to rethink the need for cities?
    6. Will air pollution get better or worse?
    7. What is your government doing about air pollution?
    8. Should people be able to sue polluters?
    9. What 'concrete measures' can governments take to cut air pollution?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the researchers?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    Scientists have (1) ____ that air pollution may be responsible for a significant reduction in intelligence. Research conducted for the World Health Organization (WHO) in China showed that air pollution was responsible for notable falls (2) ____ student test scores for languages and arithmetic. The Chinese study is called, "The impact of exposure to air pollution on (3) ____ performance". It was published in a journal called, "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences". The study took (4) ____ over a period of four years. Researchers analyzed verbal and arithmetic tests taken (5) ____ 20,000 people of all ages. They said: "Polluted air may impede cognitive ability (6) ____ people become older."

    Researchers say their study is a warning to the (7) ____ of the world, especially to those who live in cities. The WHO says over 91 per cent of the world population live in areas with (8) ____ air. Air pollution is currently the fourth highest cause of deaths worldwide. The researchers discovered that the (9) ____ people were exposed to polluted air, the greater was the damage (10) ____ their intelligence. They equated the impact of air pollution to losing a year's worth of education. For those aged over 60, this could be the equivalent (11) ____ several years of lost education. Researcher Dr Xi Chen warned: "There is no shortcut to (12) ____ this issue. Governments really need to take concrete measures to reduce air pollution."

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     revelation     (b)     revealed     (c)     revealing     (d)     reveal    
    2. (a)     on     (b)     in     (c)     at     (d)     by    
    3. (a)     dynamic     (b)     predictive     (c)     implicit     (d)     cognitive    
    4. (a)     location     (b)     place     (c)     site     (d)     area    
    5. (a)     of     (b)     by     (c)     as     (d)     on    
    6. (a)     has     (b)     is     (c)     as     (d)     was    
    7. (a)     best     (b)     lest     (c)     rest     (d)     west    
    8. (a)     taxing     (b)     pristine     (c)     toxic     (d)     hydrated    
    9. (a)     longing     (b)     lengthy     (c)     long     (d)     longer    
    10. (a)     at     (b)     by     (c)     of     (d)     to    
    11. (a)     of     (b)     at     (c)     on     (d)     as    
    12. (a)     solution     (b)     suave     (c)     solve     (d)     shave

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. Scientists have edalvree that
    2. a tisniiacnfg reduction in intelligence
    3. scores for languages and ihicaemrtt
    4. oigitcnve performance
    5. published in a orualnj
    6. dalyenza verbal tests

    Paragraph 2

    1. slcpiyleae to those who live in cities
    2. currently the fourth highest usaec
    3. They eqaeutd the impact of air pollution
    4. the qvulieaten of several years
    5. There is no tucorsht to solve this
    6. take ctceeorn measures

    Put the text back together

    (...)  responsible for notable falls in student test scores for languages and arithmetic. The Chinese study is
    (...)  people of all ages. They said: "Polluted air may impede cognitive ability as people become older."
    1  ) Scientists have revealed that air pollution may be responsible for a significant reduction
    (...)  of four years. Researchers analyzed verbal and arithmetic tests taken by 20,000
    (...)  equivalent of several years of lost education. Researcher Dr Xi Chen warned: "There is no
    (...)  to polluted air, the greater was the damage to their intelligence. They equated the impact of air pollution to
    (...)  losing a year's worth of education. For those aged over 60, this could be the
    (...)  journal called, "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences". The study took place over a period
    (...)  called, "The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance". It was published in a
    (...)  highest cause of deaths worldwide. The researchers discovered that the longer people were exposed
    (...)  Researchers say their study is a warning to the rest of the world, especially to those who live
    (...)  in intelligence. Research conducted for the World Health Organization (WHO) in China showed that air pollution was
    (...)  shortcut to solve this issue. Governments really need to take concrete measures to reduce air pollution."
    (...)  in cities. The WHO says over 91 per cent of the world population live in areas with toxic air. Air pollution is currently the fourth

    Put the words in the right order

    1. responsible   for   significant   a   may   Pollution   reduction   .   be
    2. falls   student   test   Responsible   for   notable   in   scores   .
    3. to   air   impact   The   of   exposure   pollution   .
    4. four   place   a   period   Took   over   of   years   .
    5. older   .   become   cognitive   ability   Impede   people   as
    6. world   .   rest   the   A   to   warning   of   the
    7. currently   highest   cause   .   fourth   the   is   pollution   Air
    8. polluted   to   people   longer   The   air   .   exposed   were
    9. years   The   education   .   several   of   equivalent   of   lost
    10. pollution   .   to   reduce   Take   concrete   air   measures

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    Scientists have revealed that air pollution may be responsible for a significant redaction / reduction in intelligence. Research conducted for the World Health Organization (WHO) in China showing / showed that air pollution was responsible for notable fails / falls in student test scores for languages and arithmetic. The Chinese study is called, "The compact / impact of exposure to air pollution on / in cognitive performance". It was published in / on a journal called, "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences". The study took place under / over a period of four years. Researchers analyzed / analysis verbal and arithmetic tests taken by 20,000 people off / of all ages. They said: "Polluted air may impede cognitive ability as people become older / olden."

    Researchers say their study is a waning / warning to the rest of the world, especially to those / them who live in cities. The WHO says over 91 per cent of the world population live in area / areas with toxic air. Air pollution is currently the fourth / forth highest cause of deaths worldwide. The researchers discovered / discovery that the longer people were exposed / exposure to polluted air, the greater was the damage to their intelligence. They equated the impact of air pollution to losing / lost a year's worth of education. For those aged / ageing over 60, this could be the equivalent of several years of lost educative / education. Researcher Dr Xi Chen warned: "There is no shortcut to solve this issue. Governments really need to take concrete / cement measures to reduce air pollution."

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    S c__ n t_s t s h_v_ r_v__ l_d t h_t __ r p_l l_t__ n m_y b_ r_s p_n s_b l_ f_r _ s_g n_f_c_n t r_d_c t__ n _n _n t_l l_g_n c_. R_s__ r c h c_n d_c t_d f_r t h_ W_r l d H__ l t h O r g_n_z_t__ n ( W H O ) _n C h_n_ s h_w_d t h_t __ r p_l l_t__ n w_s r_s p_n s_b l_ f_r n_t_b l_ f_l l s _n s t_d_n t t_s t s c_r_s f_r l_n g__ g_s _n d _r_t h m_t_c . T h_ C h_n_s_ s t_d y _s c_l l_d , " T h_ _m p_c t _f _x p_s_r_ t_ __ r p_l l_t__ n _n c_g n_t_v_ p_r f_r m_n c_" . I t w_s p_b l_s h_d _n _ j__ r n_l c_l l_d , " P r_c__ d_n g s _f t h_ N_t__ n_l A c_d_m y _f S c__ n c_s " . T h_ s t_d y t__ k p l_c_ _v_r _ p_r__ d _f f__ r y__ r s . R_s__ r c h_r s _n_l y z_d v_r b_l _n d _r_t h m_t_c t_s t s t_k_n b y 2 0 , 0 0 0 p__ p l_ _f _l l _g_s . T h_y s__ d : " P_l l_t_d __ r m_y _m p_d_ c_g n_t_v_ _b_l_t y _s p__ p l_ b_c_m_ _l d_r . "

    R_s__ r c h_r s s_y t h__ r s t_d y _s _ w_r n_n g t_ t h_ r_s t _f t h_ w_r l d , _s p_c__ l l y t_ t h_s_ w h_ l_v_ _n c_t__ s . T h_ W H O s_y s _v_r 9 1 p_r c_n t _f t h_ w_r l d p_p_l_t__ n l_v_ _n _r__ s w_t h t_x_c __ r . A_r p_l l_t__ n _s c_r r_n t l y t h_ f__ r t h h_g h_s t c__ s_ _f d__ t h s w_r l d w_d_. T h_ r_s__ r c h_r s d_s c_v_r_d t h_t t h_ l_n g_r p__ p l_ w_r_ _x p_s_d t_ p_l l_t_d __ r , t h_ g r__ t_r w_s t h_ d_m_g_ t_ t h__ r _n t_l l_g_n c_. T h_y _q__ t_d t h_ _m p_c t _f __ r p_l l_t__ n t_ l_s_n g _ y__ r ' s w_r t h _f _d_c_t__ n . F_r t h_s_ _g_d _v_r 6 0 , t h_s c__ l d b_ t h_ _q__ v_l_n t _f s_v_r_l y__ r s _f l_s t _d_c_t__ n . R_s__ r c h_r D r X_ C h_n w_r n_d : " T h_r_ _s n_ s h_r t c_t t_ s_l v_ t h_s _s s__ . G_v_r n m_n t s r__ l l y n__ d t_ t_k_ c_n c r_t_ m__ s_r_s t_ r_d_c_ __ r p_l l_t__ n . "

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    scientists have revealed that air pollution may be responsible for a significant reduction in intelligence research conducted for the world health organization who in china showed that air pollution was responsible for notable falls in student test scores for languages and arithmetic the chinese study is called the impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance it was published in a journal called proceedings of the national academy of sciences the study took place over a period of four years researchers analyzed verbal and arithmetic tests taken by 20000 people of all ages they said polluted air may impede cognitive ability as people become older

    researchers say their study is a warning to the rest of the world especially to those who live in cities the who says over 91 per cent of the world population live in areas with toxic air air pollution is currently the fourth highest cause of deaths worldwide the researchers discovered that the longer people were exposed to polluted air the greater was the damage to their intelligence they equated the impact of air pollution to losing a years worth of education for those aged over 60 this could be the equivalent of several years of lost education researcher dr xi chen warned there is no shortcut to solve this issue governments really need to take concrete measures to reduce air pollution"

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    Scientistshaverevealedthatairpollutionmayberesponsibleforasignifi
    cantreductioninintelligence.ResearchconductedfortheWorldHealth
    Organization(WHO)inChinashowedthatairpollutionwasresponsiblef
    ornotablefallsinstudenttestscoresforlanguagesandarithmetic.TheC
    hinesestudyiscalled,"Theimpactofexposuretoairpollutiononcognitiv
    eperformance".Itwaspublishedinajournalcalled,"ProceedingsoftheN
    ationalAcademyofSciences".Thestudytookplaceoveraperiodoffoury
    ears.Researchersanalyzedverbalandarithmeticteststakenby20,000
    peopleofallages.Theysaid:"Pollutedairmayimpedecognitiveabilityas
    peoplebecomeolder."Researcherssaytheirstudyisawarningtotheres
    toftheworld,especiallytothosewholiveincities.TheWHOsaysover91p
    ercentoftheworldpopulationliveinareaswithtoxicair.Airpollutioniscur
    rentlythefourthhighestcauseofdeathsworldwide.Theresearchersdis
    coveredthatthelongerpeoplewereexposedtopollutedair,thegreater
    wasthedamagetotheirintelligence.Theyequatedtheimpactofairpollu
    tiontolosingayear'sworthofeducation.Forthoseagedover60,thiscoul
    dbetheequivalentofseveralyearsoflosteducation.ResearcherDrXiCh
    enwarned:"Thereisnoshortcuttosolvethisissue.Governmentsreallyn
    eedtotakeconcretemeasurestoreduceairpollution."

    Free writing

    Write about air pollution for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    There is no way to win the fight against air pollution. Discuss.

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. AIR POLLUTION: Make a poster about air pollution. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. FOSSIL FUELS: Write a magazine article about ending the use of fossil fuels within the next decade. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on air pollution. Ask him/her three questions about it. Give him/her three of your ideas on how to reduce air pollution. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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