The Reading / Listening - Positive Thinking - Level 3

Positive thinkers are more likely to live longer than negative thinkers. This is according to a combination of studies conducted by the Boston University School of Medicine into the health of people in the USA. Researchers looked at data on the health of 70,000 female nurses and 1,500 male military veterans. They discovered that people who were optimists (people who thought positively) were more likely to live to the age of 85. They said people who were more pessimistic (those who thought negatively) were 11-15 per cent less likely to live to that age. The researchers believe that optimists (positive thinkers) found it easier to manage stress than pessimists (negative thinkers).



Participants in the two studies answered questions in a survey. The questions assessed their levels of optimism. The surveys matched these levels with the participants' overall level of health. They were also asked about their levels of exercise, their diets, as well as how much they smoked and drank. Professor Lewina Lee said: "Our findings speak to the possibility that raising levels of optimism may promote longevity and healthy ageing." She had some advice for pessimists who might want to live longer. The advice was to, "imagine a future in which everything has turned out well". She urged people to increase levels of optimism. She said it was healthier for people to look on the bright side of life.

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Positive Thinking - Level 0 Positive Thinking - Level 1   or  Positive Thinking - Level 2

Sources
  • https://www.bbc.com/news/health-49447685
  • https://news.sky.com/story/looking-on-the-bright-side-helps-you-live-longer-study-finds-11795107
  • https://www.livescience.com/optimism-tied-to-longevity.html


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. POSITIVE THINKING: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about positive thinking. Change partners often and share your findings.
2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?
       positive / thinker / negative / data / health / optimists / nurses / veterans / stress /
       studies / questions / health / exercise / longevity / pessimists / imagine / future
Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.
3. EASY: Students A strongly believe it is easy to always look on the bright side of life; Students B strongly believe it isn't.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.
4. FUTURE: What positive things do you imagine are in your future? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

Positive Things

When / How They Will Happen

Health

 

 

Money

 

 

Hobbies

 

 

Relationships

 

 

Career

 

 

English

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. STRESS: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "stress". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.
6. OPTIMISM: Rank these with your partner. Put the things optimism is best for at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • many friends
  • good image
  • success in life
  • youthfulness
  • good health
  • happiness
  • wealth
  • longevity

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. likely a. A person who has worked in the military (army, navy, air force, etc.).
      2. combination b. Organized and carried out.
      3. conducted c. The joining of different things together.
      4. data d. A person who is usually hopeful and confident about the future or the success of something.
      5. veteran e. Such as well might happen or be true; probable.
      6. pessimistic f. Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.
      7. optimist g. Always thinking the worst thing will happen or believe that the worst thing will happen.

    Paragraph 2

      8. survey h. Checked or estimated the nature, ability, or quality of something.
      9. assessed i. Become; prove to be the case.
      10. overall j. Cheerful, happy and lively.
      11. longevity k. Taking everything into account.
      12. turned out l. Try to get someone to do something.
      13. urge m. Long life.
      14. bright n. A paper that finds out the opinions or experience of a group of people after they ask questions.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if 1-8 below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. The article says pessimists are less likely to live longer than optimists.     T / F
  2. Researchers looked at data on 71,500 men and women.     T / F
  3. The research says all optimists live to be the age of 85.     T / F
  4. Positive thinkers are up to 15% more likely to live to be 85.     T / F
  5. People answered questions about exercise, optimism and drinking.     T / F
  6. Researchers say optimism can reduce longevity.     T / F
  7. A researcher said imagining a dark future helps people feel optimistic.     T / F
  8. A researcher said bright people should look on the healthy side of life.     T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. likely
  2. combination
  3. data
  4. pessimistic
  5. manage
  6. survey
  7. assessed
  8. raising
  9. advice
  10. bright
  1. increasing
  2. negative
  3. questionnaire
  4. mix
  5. sunny
  6. guidance
  7. probable
  8. control
  9. evaluated
  10. details

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. Positive thinkers are more likely
  2. This is according to a combination
  3. military
  4. 11-15 per cent less likely to live
  5. positive thinkers found it easier to
  6. The questions assessed their
  7. the participants' overall level
  8. optimism may promote
  9. She urged
  10. look on the bright
  1. people
  2. manage stress
  3. longevity
  4. of studies
  5. of health
  6. veterans
  7. side of life
  8. to live longer
  9. levels of optimism
  10. to that age

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
data
live
stress
likely
age
veterans
according
pessimistic

Positive thinkers are more (1) ____________ to live longer than negative thinkers. This is (2) ____________ to a combination of studies conducted by the Boston University School of Medicine into the health of people in the USA. Researchers looked at (3) ____________ on the health of 70,000 female nurses and 1,500 male military (4) ____________. They discovered that people who were optimists (people who thought positively) were more likely to (5) ____________ to the age of 85. They said people who were more (6) ____________ (those who thought negatively) were 11-15 per cent less likely to live to that (7) ____________. The researchers believe that optimists (positive thinkers) found it easier to manage (8) ____________ than pessimists (negative thinkers).

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
overall
ageing
urged
survey
bright
findings
optimism
future

Participants in the two studies answered questions in a (9) ____________. The questions assessed their levels of (10) ____________. The surveys matched these levels with the participants' (11) ____________ level of health. They were also asked about their levels of exercise, their diets, as well as how much they smoked and drank. Professor Lewina Lee said: "Our (12) ____________ speak to the possibility that raising levels of optimism may promote longevity and healthy (13) ____________." She had some advice for pessimists who might want to live longer. The advice was to, "imagine a (14) ____________ in which everything has turned out well". She (15) ____________ people to increase levels of optimism. She said it was healthier for people to look on the (16) ____________ side of life.

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1)  Positive thinkers are more ______ longer
     a.  likelihood to live
     b.  liked to live
     c.  liken to live
     d.  likely to live
2) looked at data on the health of 70,000 female nurses and 1,500 male ______
     a.  military veterans
     b.  militarily veterans
     c.  militia veterans
     d.  militaries veterans
3)  people who thought positively were more likely to live to ______ 85
     a.  the ages of
     b.  the age of
     c.  the aged of
     d.  the ageing of
4)  those who thought negatively were 11-15 per cent less likely to live ______
     a.  to that adage
     b.  to that average
     c.  to that age
     d.  to that package
5)  positive thinkers found it easier ______
     a.  to manager stress
     b.  to manages stress
     c.  to managed stress
     d.  to manage stress

6)  Participants in the two studies answered questions ______
     a.  in a survey
     b.  in a scurvy
     c.  in a surveyed
     d.  in a surveys
7)  The questions assessed their ______
     a.  levels of optimism
     b.  levels of optimistic
     c.  levels of optic -ism
     d.  levels of optician
8) about their levels of exercise, their diets, as well as how much they ______
     a.  smoke and drunk
     b.  smoke and drank
     c.  smoked and drank
     d.  smoked and drunk
9)  raising levels of optimism may promote longevity and ______
     a.  healthy age in
     b.  healthy ageing
     c.  healthy aged in
     d.  healthy again
10)  She said it was healthier for people to look on the bright ______
     a.  slice of life
     b.  slide of life
     c.  snide of life
     d.  side of life

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

Positive thinkers are more (1) ___________________ longer than negative thinkers. This is according to a combination of studies (2) ___________________ Boston University School of Medicine into the health of people in the USA. Researchers looked (3) ___________________ the health of 70,000 female nurses and 1,500 male military veterans. They discovered that people (4) ___________________ (people who thought positively) were more likely to live to the age of 85. They said people who (5) ___________________ (those who thought negatively) were 11-15 per cent less likely to live to that age. The researchers believe that optimists (positive thinkers) found it (6) ___________________ stress than pessimists (negative thinkers).

Participants in the two studies answered questions (7) ___________________. The questions assessed their levels of optimism. The surveys matched these (8) ___________________ participants' overall level of health. They were also asked about their levels of exercise, their diets, as well as how much they (9) ___________________. Professor Lewina Lee said: "Our findings speak to the possibility that raising levels of optimism may promote longevity (10) ___________________." She had some advice for pessimists who might want (11) ___________________. The advice was to, "imagine a future in which everything has turned out well". She urged people to increase levels of optimism. She said it was healthier for people to look on the (12) ___________________ life.

Comprehension questions

  1. Who are more likely to live longer than negative thinkers?
  2. What is the name of the place that conducted the research?
  3. How many women took part in the research?
  4. Until what age are optimists more likely to live to?
  5. How much less likely were pessimists to live to 85?
  6. How many studies were combined to conduct this research?
  7. What were the results of the study matched against?
  8. Who is Lewina Lee?
  9. How should an imagined future turn out according to a researcher?
  10. What side of life did a researcher say people should look on?




Multiple choice quiz

1) Who are more likely to live longer than negative thinkers?
a) positive thinkers
b) pessimists
c) researchers
d) veterans
2) What is the name of the place that conducted the research?
a) New York University
b) MIT
c) Boston University School of Medicine
d) the School of Positive Thinking
3) How many women took part in the research?
a) 72,000
b) 70,000
c) 73,000
d) 71,000
4) Until what age are optimists more likely to live to?
a) 75
b) 78
c) 82
d) 85
5)  How much less likely were pessimists to live to 85?
a) 11-15%
b) 11-18%
c) 12-15%
d) 12-17%

6) How many studies were combined to conduct this research?
a) five
b) four
c) three
d) two
7) What were the results of the study matched against?
a) levels of positive thinking
b) participants' overall level of health
c) levels of negative thinking
d) researchers' levels of health
8) Who is Lewina Lee?
a) an optimist
b) a pessimist
c) an expert in stress
d) a researcher and professor
9) How should an imagined future turn out according to a researcher?
a) bright
b) long
c) well
d) promising
10) What side of life did a researcher say people should look on?
a) the left side
b) the bright side
c) the other side
d) the dark side

Role play

Role  A – Good Health
You think good health is the best thing about being optimistic. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): longevity, having many friends or a good image.

Role  B – Longevity
You think longevity is the best thing about being optimistic. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): good health, having many friends or a good image.

Role  C – Many Friends
You think having many friends is the best thing about being optimistic. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): longevity, good health or a good image.

Role  D – Good Image
You think a good image is the best thing about being optimistic. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least important of these (and why): longevity, having many friends or good health.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'positive'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'thinking'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • two
    • assessed
    • diets
    • raising
    • future
    • side
    • according
    • 70,000
    • 1,500
    • 85
    • 11
    • manage




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - Positive thinking helps us live longer

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'positive'?
    3. Are you a positive thinker?
    4. What do you worry about?
    5. Do you think positive thinking can make you live longer?
    6. Are you optimistic about your future?
    7. Are you optimistic about the world's future?
    8. What makes some people optimistic and others pessimistic?
    9. What stresses do you have in your life?
    10. What do you do to manage your stress?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'thinking'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. What is your overall level of health like?
    5. What advice do you have for pessimists?
    6. What can you do to increase your longevity?
    7. How easy is it to imagine the future turns out well?
    8. Are you a glass-half-full person or a glass-half-empty person?
    9. Is it easy to always look on the bright side of life?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the researchers?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    Positive thinkers are more (1) ____ to live longer than negative thinkers. This is according to a combination of studies conducted (2) ____ the Boston University School of Medicine (3) ____ the health of people in the USA. Researchers looked at data on the health of 70,000 female nurses and 1,500 male (4) ____ veterans. They discovered that people who were optimists (people who thought positively) were more likely to live to the (5) ____ of 85. They said people who were more pessimistic (those who thought negatively) were 11-15 per cent less likely to live to that age. The researchers believe that optimists (positive thinkers) found it easier to (6) ____ stress than pessimists (negative thinkers).

    Participants in the two studies answered questions (7) ____ a survey. The questions assessed their levels of optimism. The surveys matched these levels with the participants' (8) ____ level of health. They were also asked about their levels of exercise, their diets, as well as how much they smoked and drank. Professor Lewina Lee said: "Our findings speak to the possibility that (9) ____ levels of optimism may promote longevity and healthy ageing." She had some (10) ____ for pessimists who might want to live longer. The advice was to, "imagine a future in which everything has turned (11) ____ well". She urged people to increase levels of optimism. She said it was healthier for people to look on the bright (12) ____ of life.

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     liked     (b)     likelihood     (c)     likely     (d)     liken    
    2. (a)     by     (b)     as     (c)     of     (d)     off    
    3. (a)     into     (b)     up to     (c)     unto     (d)     onto    
    4. (a)     military     (b)     militaries     (c)     militia     (d)     militarize    
    5. (a)     birthday     (b)     years     (c)     old     (d)     age    
    6. (a)     drainage     (b)     package     (c)     adage     (d)     manage    
    7. (a)     in     (b)     of     (c)     to     (d)     as    
    8. (a)     overarm     (b)     overt     (c)     overly     (d)     overall    
    9. (a)     raising     (b)     arising     (c)     heighten     (d)     highs    
    10. (a)     advisor     (b)     advice     (c)     advisory     (d)     advise    
    11. (a)     up     (b)     out     (c)     in     (d)     of    
    12. (a)     side     (b)     edge     (c)     corner     (d)     bottom

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. more ilkeyl to live longer
    2. coacnrdig to a combination of studies
    3. etdodnccu by Boston University
    4. military vaertnse
    5. those who thought veagitlyne
    6. found it easier to manage stress than stpisismes

    Paragraph 2

    1. atpspinctiar in the two studies
    2. The questions adessess their levels
    3. raoelvl level of health
    4. promote yointvgel and healthy ageing
    5. The ciedav was to imagine
    6. She udger people to increase levels

    Put the text back together

    (...)  matched these levels with the participants' overall level of health. They were also asked
    1  ) Positive thinkers are more likely to live longer than negative thinkers. This is according to a combination
    (...)  negatively) were 11-15 per cent less likely to live to that age. The researchers believe that
    (...)  likely to live to the age of 85. They said people who were more pessimistic (those who thought
    (...)  military veterans. They discovered that people who were optimists (people who thought positively) were more
    (...)  to increase levels of optimism. She said it was healthier for people to look on the bright side of life.
    (...)  of people in the USA. Researchers looked at data on the health of 70,000 female nurses and 1,500 male
    (...)  Participants in the two studies answered questions in a survey. The questions assessed their levels of optimism. The surveys
    (...)  drank. Professor Lewina Lee said: "Our findings speak to the possibility that raising levels of optimism may promote longevity and
    (...)  about their levels of exercise, their diets, as well as how much they smoked and
    (...)  of studies conducted by the Boston University School of Medicine into the health
    (...)  was to, "imagine a future in which everything has turned out well". She urged people
    (...)  optimists (positive thinkers) found it easier to manage stress than pessimists (negative thinkers).
    (...)  healthy ageing." She had some advice for pessimists who might want to live longer. The advice

    Put the words in the right order

    1. longer   .   live   more   Positive   likely   to   are   thinkers
    2. studies   .   of   is   to   This   combination   according   a
    3. on   the   70,000   health   of   female   Data   nurses   .
    4. age   live   of   the   Likely   85   .   to   to
    5. it   easier   .   The   optimists   that   found   believe   researchers
    6. in   questions   .   Participants   two   the   answered   studies
    7. optimism   Raising   levels   may   promote   longevity   .   of
    8. well   .   out   turned   has   future   where   everything   A
    9. to   levels   people   optimism   .   urged   increase   She   of
    10. the   on   bright   life   .   look   of   side   People

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    Positive thinkers are more likely / liked to live longer than negative thinkers. This is according at / to a combination of studies conducted by / as the Boston University School of Medicine into the healthy / health of people in the USA. Researchers looked at data / dates on the health of 70,000 female nurses and 1,500 male militia / military veterans. They discovered that people who were optimists (people who thought positively) were more likely to live to the old / age of 85. They said people who were more pessimistic / pessimism (those who thought negatively) were 11-15 per cent less likely to live to that age. The researchers believe / belief that optimists (positive thinkers) found it easier to manage stressful / stress than pessimists (negative thinkers).

    Participants / Participates in the two studies answered questions in a survey. The questions accessed / assessed their levels of optimism. The surveys matched these levels / level with the participants' overall / overalls level of health. They were also asked about their levels of exercise, their diets, was / as well as how much they smoked and drank. Professor Lewina Lee said: "Our findings speak to the possible / possibility that raising levels of optimism may promote longevity and healthy ageing." She had some advice / advise for pessimists who might want to live longer. The advice was to, "imagine a future in which everything has turned in / out well". She urged people to increase levels of optimism. She said it was healthier for people to look on the brightly / bright side of life / live.

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    P_s_t_v_ t h_n k_r s _r_ m_r_ l_k_l y t_ l_v_ l_n g_r t h_n n_g_t_v_ t h_n k_r s . T h_s _s _c c_r d_n g t_ _ c_m b_n_t__ n _f s t_d__ s c_n d_c t_d b y t h_ B_s t_n U n_v_r s_t y S c h__ l _f M_d_c_n_ _n t_ t h_ h__ l t h _f p__ p l_ _n t h_ U S A . R_s__ r c h_r s l__ k_d _t d_t_ _n t h_ h__ l t h _f 7 0 , 0 0 0 f_m_l_ n_r s_s _n d 1 , 5 0 0 m_l_ m_l_t_r y v_t_r_n s . T h_y d_s c_v_r_d t h_t p__ p l_ w h_ w_r_ _p t_m_s t ( p__ p l_ w h_ t h__ g h t p_s_t_v_l y ) w_r_ m_r_ l_k_l y t_ l_v_ t_ t h_ _g_ _f 8 5 . T h_y s__ d p__ p l_ w h_ w_r_ m_r_ p_s s_m_s t_c ( t h_s_ w h_ t h__ g h t n_g_t_v_l y ) w_r_ 1 1 - 1 5 p_r c_n t l_s s l_k_l y t_ l_v_ t_ t h_t _g_. T h_ r_s__ r c h_r s b_l__ v_ t h_t _p t_m_s t s ( p_s_t_v_ t h_n k_r s ) f__ n d _t __ s__ r t_ m_n_g_ s t r_s s t h_n p_s s_m_s t s ( n_g_t_v_ t h_n k_r s ) .

    P_r t_c_p_n t s _n t h_ t w_ s t_d__ s _n s w_r_d q__ s t__ n s _n _ s_r v_y . T h_ q__ s t__ n s _s s_s s_d t h__ r l_v_l s _f _p t_m_s m . T h_ s_r v_y s m_t c h_d t h_s_ l_v_l s w_t h t h_ p_r t_c_p_n t s ' _v_r_l l l_v_l _f h__ l t h . T h_y w_r_ _l s_ _s k_d _b__ t t h__ r l_v_l s _f _x_r c_s_, t h__ r d__ t s , _s w_l l _s h_w m_c h t h_y s m_k_d _n d d r_n k . P r_f_s s_r L_w_n_ L__ s__ d : " O_r f_n d_n g s s p__ k t_ t h_ p_s s_b_l_t y t h_t r__ s_n g l_v_l s _f _p t_m_s m m_y p r_m_t_ l_n g_v_t y _n d h__ l t h y _g__ n g . " S h_ h_d s_m_ _d v_c_ f_r p_s s_m_s t s w h_ m_g h t w_n t t_ l_v_ l _ n g _ r . T h_ _d v_c_ w_s t_, "_m_g_n_ _ f_t_r_ _n w h_c h _v_r y t h_n g h_s t_r n_d __ t w_l l " . S h_ _r g_d p__ p l_ t_ _n c r__ s_ l_v_l s _f _p t_m_s m . S h_ s__ d _t w_s h__ l t h__ r f_r p__ p l_ t_ l__ k _n t h_ b r_g h t s_d_ _f l_f_.

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    positive thinkers are more likely to live longer than negative thinkers this is according to a combination of studies conducted by the boston university school of medicine into the health of people in the usa researchers looked at data on the health of 70000 female nurses and 1500 male military veterans they discovered that people who were optimist people who thought positively were more likely to live to the age of 85 they said people who were more pessimistic those who thought negatively were 1115 per cent less likely to live to that age the researchers believe that optimists positive thinkers found it easier to manage stress than pessimists negative thinkers

    participants in the two studies answered questions in a survey the questions assessed their levels of optimism the surveys matched these levels with the participants overall level of health they were also asked about their levels of exercise their diets as well as how much they smoked and drank professor lewina lee said our findings speak to the possibility that raising levels of optimism may promote longevity and healthy ageing she had some advice for pessimists who might want to live longer the advice was to imagine a future in which everything has turned out well she urged people to increase levels of optimism she said it was healthier for people to look on the bright side of life.

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    Positivethinkersaremorelikelytolivelongerthannegativethinkers.Thi
    sisaccordingtoacombinationofstudiesconductedbytheBostonUniver
    sitySchoolofMedicineintothehealthofpeopleintheUSA.Researcherslo
    okedatdataonthehealthof70,000femalenursesand1,500malemilitar
    yveterans.Theydiscoveredthatpeoplewhowereoptimists(peoplewho
    thoughtpositively)weremorelikelytolivetotheageof85.Theysaidpeo
    plewhoweremorepessimistic(thosewhothoughtnegatively)were11-
    15percentlesslikelytolivetothatage.Theresearchersbelievethatopti
    mists(positivethinkers)founditeasiertomanagestressthanpessimist
    s(negativethinkers).Participantsinthetwostudiesansweredquestion
    sinasurvey.Thequestionsassessedtheirlevelsofoptimism.Thesurvey
    smatchedtheselevelswiththeparticipants'overalllevelofhealth.They
    werealsoaskedabouttheirlevelsofexercise,theirdiets,aswellashowm
    uchtheysmokedanddrank.ProfessorLewinaLeesaid:"Ourfindingsspe
    aktothepossibilitythatraisinglevelsofoptimismmaypromotelongevit
    yandhealthyageing."Shehadsomeadviceforpessimistswhomightwa
    nttolivelonger.Theadvicewasto,"imagineafutureinwhicheverything
    hasturnedoutwell".Sheurgedpeopletoincreaselevelsofoptimism.Sh
    esaiditwashealthierforpeopletolookonthebrightsideoflife.

    Free writing

    Write about positive thinking for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    It's always better to look on the bright side of life. Discuss.

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google's search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.
    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.
    3. POSITIVE THINKING: Make a poster about positive thinking. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?
    4. POSITIVE LESSONS: Write a magazine article about children having lessons at school on how to be positive. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.
    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).
    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.
    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on positive thinking. Ask him/her three questions about it. Give him/her three of your ideas on how to think more positively. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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