The Reading / Listening - Light Pollution - Level 6

The amount and brightness of light from towns and cities around the world is at such a high level that it is reducing the darkness of night. Once upon a time, when night-time fell, we were plunged into darkness. Things are different, and brighter today. A study published in the journal Science Advances reports that artificial light at night is increasing in most countries worldwide. Scientists say it grew by 2.2 per cent a year between 2012 and 2016. The intrusion of artificial light into our night-time is causing us many problems. The International Dark-Sky Association says it, "is not only impairing our view of the universe, it is adversely affecting our environment, our safety, our energy consumption and our health".



Study co-author Franz Holker said artificial light is a threat to our natural environment. He said: "Artificial light is an environmental pollutant that threatens nocturnal animals and affects plants and microorganisms." He added: "[It] has ecological and evolutionary implications for many organisms from bacteria to mammals, including us humans, and may reshape entire social ecological systems." Many environmentalists thought the introduction of LED lights would help the planet. However, cities are using more LED lights because they are cheaper, which is adding to the light pollution. Night-time light decreased in 16 countries, including war-torn nations such as Yemen and Syria.

Try the same news story at these easier levels:

    Light Pollution - Level 4  or  Light Pollution - Level 5

Sources
  • https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/science/2017/11/22/farewell-night-light-pollution-reducing-darkness-worldwide/888786001/
  • http://www.iflscience.com/environment/artificial-light-pollution-around-the-world-is-leading-to-a-loss-of-night/
  • http://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/lost-led-revolution-light-pollution-increasing/


Make sure you try all of the online activities for this reading and listening - There are dictations, multiple choice, drag and drop activities, crosswords, hangman, flash cards, matching activities and a whole lot more. Please enjoy :-)



Warm-ups

1. LIGHT POLLUTION: Students walk around the class and talk to other students about light pollution. Change partners often and share your findings.

2. CHAT: In pairs / groups, talk about these topics or words from the article. What will the article say about them? What can you say about these words and your life?

       brightness / high level / darkness / once upon a time / artificial / worldwide / safety /
       natural / environment / nocturnal / mammals / ecological / LED lights / war-torn

Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently.

3. DARKNESS: Students A strongly believe we need to bring the darkness back to our cities at night; Students B strongly believe we need more light.  Change partners again and talk about your conversations.

4. POLLUTION: How bad are these kinds of pollution? How do we deal with them? Complete this table with your partner(s). Change partners often and share what you wrote.

 

How bad is this?

How do we deal with it?

Light pollution

 

 

Noise pollution

 

 

Water pollution

 

 

Air pollution

 

 

Radioactive pollution

 

 

Soil pollution

 

 

MY e-BOOK
ESL resource book with copiable worksheets and handouts - 1,000 Ideas and Activities for Language Teachers / English teachers
See a sample

5. DARKNESS: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word "darkness". Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories.

6. THE DARK: Rank these with your partner. Put the best things about the dark at the top. Change partners often and share your rankings.

  • Cooler temperatures
  • Night creatures
  • Nightlife
  • Romance
  • You can sleep
  • The stars
  • Quietness
  • Peace

 

Vocabulary

    Paragraph 1

      1. amount a. Preventing success or development; harmful; unfavorable.
      2. plunged b. Suddenly brought into a specified condition or state.
      3. artificial c. The action of putting oneself or something deliberately into a place or situation where one/it is unwelcome or uninvited.
      4. intrusion d. A quantity of something, usually the total of a thing or things in number, size, or value.
      5. impairing e. The using up of a resource.
      6. adversely f. Made or produced by human beings rather than occurring naturally, usually as a copy of something natural.
      7. consumption g. Weakening or damaging something.

    Paragraph 2

      8. threat h. The process by which different kinds of life has developed and diversified from earlier forms of life throughout history.
      9. pollutant i. Done, occurring, or active at night.
      10. nocturnal j. Relating to or concerned with the relation of living organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings.
      11. evolutionary k. A person or thing likely to cause damage or danger.
      12. mammals l. A substance that pollutes, poisons, dirties… something, especially water or the atmosphere.
      13. ecological m. Of a place damaged or destroyed by conflict and fighting.
      14. war-torn n. Warm-blooded animals that have a backbone, hair or fur, milk for their young, and the birth of live young.

 

Before reading / listening

1. TRUE / FALSE: Read the headline. Guess if a-h below are true (T) or false (F).

  1. The article said levels of brightness were at high levels.     T / F
  2. The article says the study was published in a newspaper.     T / F
  3. Light pollution is impairing our view of the universe.     T / F
  4. Light pollution is adversely affecting our safety.     T / F
  5. The study said artificial light is a danger to night-time animals.     T / F
  6. The study said bacteria are not affected by light pollution.     T / F
  7. LED lights have helped reduce light pollution.     T / F
  8. Light pollution has increased in every country in the world.     T / F

2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article.

  1. amount
  2. reducing
  3. artificial
  4. threat
  5. consumption
  6. pollutant
  7. entire
  8. environmentalists
  9. adding to
  10. war-torn
  1. danger
  2. use
  3. intensifying
  4. imitation
  5. conservationists
  6. quantity
  7. devastated
  8. contaminant
  9. lessening
  10. whole

3. PHRASE MATCH: (Sometimes more than one choice is possible.)

  1. The amount and brightness
  2. we were plunged
  3. The intrusion of artificial light
  4. impairing our view of the
  5. energy
  6. artificial light is a threat to our
  7. nocturnal
  8. many organisms from
  9. reshape entire social ecological
  10. war-
  1. into our night-time
  2. torn nations
  3. consumption
  4. natural environment
  5. bacteria to mammals
  6. into darkness
  7. systems
  8. of light
  9. animals
  10. universe

Gap fill

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
artificial
plunged
brightness
adversely
most
impairing
level
journal

The amount and (1) ____________ of light from towns and cities around the world is at such a high (2) ____________ that it is reducing the darkness of night. Once upon a time, when night-time fell, we were (3) ____________ into darkness. Things are different, and brighter today. A study published in the (4) ____________ Science Advances reports that artificial light at night is increasing in (5) ____________ countries worldwide. Scientists say it grew by 2.2 per cent a year between 2012 and 2016. The intrusion of (6) ____________ light into our night-time is causing us many problems. The International Dark-Sky Association says it, "is not only (7) ____________ our view of the universe, it is (8) ____________ affecting our environment, our safety, our energy consumption and our health".

Put these words into the spaces in the paragraph below.
introduction
nocturnal
torn
mammals
adding
threat
planet
ecological

Study co-author Franz Holker said artificial light is a (9) ____________ to our natural environment. He said: "Artificial light is an environmental pollutant that threatens (10) ____________ animals and affects plants and microorganisms." He added: "[It] has (11) ____________ and evolutionary implications for many organisms from bacteria to (12) ____________, including us humans, and may reshape entire social ecological systems." Many environmentalists thought the (13) ____________ of LED lights would help the (14) ____________. However, cities are using more LED lights because they are cheaper, which is (15) ____________ to the light pollution. Night-time light decreased in 16 countries, including war-(17) ____________ nations such as Yemen and Syria.

Listening — Guess the answers. Listen to check.

1) brightness of light from towns and cities around the world is at ______ level
     a.  such the high
     b.  much a height
     c.  such a high
     d.  much a high

2)  Once upon a time, when night-time fell, we were ______ darkness
     a.  plunger into
     b.  plunge it onto
     c.  plunged onto
     d.  plunged into

3)  The intrusion of artificial light into our night-time is ______ problems
     a.  causing us many
     b.  cause in as many
     c.  cause sin us many
     d.  causing as many

4)  The International Dark-Sky Association says it is not only impairing ______ universe
     a.  hour view off the
     b.  our view of their
     c.  our view of the
     d.  hour view of the

5)  our environment, our safety, our energy consumption ______
     a.  and our health
     b.  and our healthy
     c.  and dour health
     d.  an dour health

6)  Study co-author Franz Holker said artificial light is a threat to ______ environment
     a.  our natural
     b.  our naturally
     c.  our nature all
     d.  our nature rail

7)  He said: "Artificial light is an environmental pollutant that threatens ______"
     a.  nocturnal animal
     b.  nocturnal animals
     c.  nocturnally animals
     d.  nocturne all animals

8)  It has ecological and evolutionary implications for many organisms from ______
     a.  bacteria too mammals
     b.  bacteria to mammals
     c.  bacteria two mammals
     d.  bacteria thru mammals

9)  Many environmentalists thought the introduction ______
     a.  of TED lights
     b.  of WED lights
     c.  of LED lights
     d.  of ZED lights

10)  Night-time light decreased in 16 countries, including ______
     a.  wart awn nations
     b.  war-torn nations
     c.  wore-torn nations
     d.  war-turn nations

Listening — Listen and fill in the gaps

The amount and (1) ___________________ from towns and cities around the world is at such a high level that it is reducing the (2) ___________________. Once upon a time, when night-time fell, we were plunged into darkness. Things are different, and brighter today. A study published (3) ___________________ Science Advances reports that artificial light at night is increasing in most countries worldwide. Scientists say it grew by 2.2 per cent a year between 2012 and 2016. The (4) ___________________ light into our night-time is causing us many problems. The International Dark-Sky Association says it, "is not only impairing our view (5) ___________________, it is adversely affecting our environment, our (6) ___________________ consumption and our health".

Study co-author Franz Holker said (7) ___________________ a threat to our natural environment. He said: "Artificial light is an environmental pollutant that threatens nocturnal (8) ___________________ plants and microorganisms." He added: "[It] has ecological and evolutionary implications for many organisms from (9) ___________________, including us humans, and may (10) ___________________ ecological systems." Many environmentalists thought the introduction of LED lights would help the planet. However, (11) ___________________ more LED lights because they are cheaper, which is adding to the light pollution. Night-time light decreased in 16 countries, including (12) ___________________ such as Yemen and Syria.

Comprehension questions

  1. Where did the article say the artificial light was coming from?
  2. What did the article say we were plunged into when night-time came?
  3. How much did light pollution increase year-on-year before 2016?
  4. What is light pollution impairing our view of?
  5. How is light pollution affecting our safety and energy consumption?
  6. Who is Franz Holker?
  7. What kind of animals did the article say light pollution is affecting?
  8. What did the article say was being reshaped?
  9. What are cities using because they are cheaper?
  10. In how many countries did the article say night-time light is decreasing?




Multiple choice quiz

1) Where did the article say the artificial light was coming from?
a) cars
b) mobile phones
c) villages and farms
d) cities and towns

2) What did the article say we were plunged into when night-time came?
a) depression
b) darkness
c) boiling water
d) chaos

3) How much did light pollution increase year-on-year before 2016?
a) 22.2%
b) 12%
c) 22%
d) 2.2%

4) What is light pollution impairing our view of?
a) each other
b) roads
c) the universe
d) our smart phones

5) How is light pollution affecting our safety and energy consumption?
a) in a bright way
b) a tiny bit
c) a little
d) adversely

6) Who is Franz Holker?
a) a designer
b) an astronomer
c) the co-author of the study
d) an ecologist

7) What kind of animals did the article say light pollution is affecting?
a) nocturnal animals
b) bats
c) fireflies
d) animals that live in caves

8) What did the article say was being reshaped?
a) the universe
b) bacteria
c) social ecological systems
d) humans

9) What are cities using because they are cheaper?
a) street lights
b) LED lights
c) torches
d) batteries

10) In how many countries did the article say night-time light is decreasing?
a) 16
b) 18
c) 14
d) 20

Role play

Role  A – You Can Sleep

You think sleeping time is the best thing about the dark. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these (and why): quietness, looking at the stars or nightlife.

Role  B – Quietness

You think quietness is the best thing about the dark. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these (and why): sleeping time, looking at the stars or nightlife.

Role  C – The Stars

You think looking at the stars is the best thing about the dark. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these (and why): quietness, sleeping time or nightlife.

Role  D – Nightlife

You think nightlife is the best thing about the dark. Tell the others three reasons why. Tell them what is wrong with their things. Also, tell the others which is the least interesting of these (and why):  quietness, looking at the stars or sleeping time.

After reading / listening

1. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionary / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words...

'light'

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • and 'dark'.

  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • • Share your findings with your partners.

    • Make questions using the words you found.

    • Ask your partner / group your questions.

    2. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text.

    •Share your questions with other classmates / groups. •Ask your partner / group your questions.

    3. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?

    4. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

    5. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall how they were used in the text:

    • threat
    • animals
    • humans
    • help
    • cheaper
    • such
    • amount
    • once
    • published
    • grew
    • view
    • health




    Student survey

    Write five GOOD questions about this topic in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers.

    (Please look at page 12 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

    Discussion - Light pollution is taking away night's darkness

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    1. What did you think when you read the headline?
    2. What images are in your mind when you hear the word 'light'?
    3. What kinds of pollution are there?
    4. How bothered are you by light?
    5. What damage does light pollution do?
    6. Do you prefer the light or the dark?
    7. Why are people afraid of the dark?
    8. How dark do you need it to be to sleep?
    9. How sad is it we can no longer see the stars?
    10. How can artificial light affect our safety?

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    1. Did you like reading this article? Why/not?
    2. What do you think of when you hear the word 'dark'?
    3. What do you think about what you read?
    4. What do you know about light pollution?
    5. How does artificial light threaten our natural environment?
    6. How much do you think artificial light is a pollutant?
    7. How might artificial light reshape our ecology?
    8. What is the answer to light pollution?
    9. What can you do to reduce light pollution?
    10. What questions would you like to ask the researchers?

    Discussion — Write your own questions

    STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B)

    (a) ________________

    (b) ________________

    (c) ________________

    (d) ________________

    (e) ________________

    STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)

    (f) ________________

    (g) ________________

    (h) ________________

    (i) ________________

    (j) ________________





    Language — Cloze (Gap-fill)

    The amount and (1) ____ of light from towns and cities around the world is at such a high level that it is reducing the (2) ____ of night. Once upon a time, when night-time fell, we were (3) ____ into darkness. Things are different, and brighter today. A study published in the journal Science Advances reports that (4) ____ light at night is increasing in most countries worldwide. Scientists say it grew by 2.2 per cent a year between 2012 and 2016. The intrusion (5) ____ artificial light into out night-time is causing us many problems. The International Dark-Sky Association says it, "is not only impairing our (6) ____ of the universe, it is adversely affecting our environment, our safety, our energy consumption and our health".

    Study co-author Franz Holker said artificial light is a threat to our natural environment. He said: "Artificial light is an environmental pollutant (7) ____ threatens nocturnal animals and (8) ____ plants and microorganisms." He added: "[It] has ecological and evolutionary implications for many organisms from bacteria to mammals, including (9) ____ humans, and may reshape entire social ecological systems." Many environmentalists thought the introduction of LED lights (10) ____ help (11) ____ planet. However, cities are using more LED lights because they are cheaper, which is adding to the light pollution. Night-time light decreased in 16 countries, including war-(12) ____ nations such as Yemen and Syria.

    Which of these words go in the above text?

    1. (a)     bright     (b)     brightness     (c)     brightly     (d)     brighten    
    2. (a)     darkly     (b)     darkness     (c)     dark     (d)     darken    
    3. (a)     plagued     (b)     bunged     (c)     expunged     (d)     plunged    
    4. (a)     artificially     (b)     artificial     (c)     artificiality     (d)     artifact    
    5. (a)     off     (b)     at     (c)     by     (d)     of    
    6. (a)     panorama     (b)     spectacle     (c)     view     (d)     scene    
    7. (a)     that     (b)     this     (c)     what     (d)     thus    
    8. (a)     effects     (b)     reflects     (c)     affects     (d)     infects    
    9. (a)     your     (b)     our     (c)     them     (d)     us    
    10. (a)     would     (b)     great     (c)     so     (d)     possible    
    11. (a)     the     (b)     one     (c)     all     (d)     a    
    12. (a)     torn     (b)     turn     (c)     tern     (d)     tarn

    Spelling

    Paragraph 1

    1. The amount and nisersbhgt of light
    2. egnlpdu into darkness
    3. A study bisudlehp in the journal
    4. The nstuionir of artificial light
    5. vsyledrea affecting our environment
    6. our energy umnnpctosio

    Paragraph 2

    1. a ahtrte to our natural environment
    2. an environmental lpttoaunl
    3. ornnlutac animals
    4. organisms from bacteria to asalmmm
    5. light edrescade in 16 countries
    6. including rwa-trno nations such as Yemen

    Put the text back together

    (    )     into darkness. Things are different, and brighter today. A study published in the journal Science Advances reports that artificial

    (  1  )     The amount and brightness of light from towns and cities around the world is at such a high level that it is reducing

    (    )     light at night is increasing in most countries worldwide. Scientists say it grew by 2.2 per cent a year

    (    )     thought the introduction of LED lights would help the planet. However, cities are using more LED

    (    )     Study co-author Franz Holker said artificial light is a threat to our natural environment. He said: "Artificial light is an

    (    )     lights because they are cheaper, which is adding to the light pollution. Night-time light

    (    )     between 2012 and 2016. The intrusion of artificial light into our night-time is causing us many

    (    )     decreased in 16 countries, including war-torn nations such as Yemen and Syria.

    (    )     problems. The International Dark-Sky Association says it, "is not only impairing our view of the universe, it is adversely

    (    )     affecting our environment, our safety, our energy consumption and our health".

    (    )     the darkness of night. Once upon a time, when night-time fell, we were plunged

    (    )     microorganisms." He added: "[It] has ecological and evolutionary implications for many organisms from bacteria

    (    )     environmental pollutant that threatens nocturnal animals and affects plants and

    (    )     to mammals, including us humans, and may reshape entire social ecological systems." Many environmentalists

    Put the words in the right order

    1. amount   The   towns   from   light   of   brightness   and   .
    2. were   plunged   into   darkness   When   night-time   fell   ,   we   .
    3. countries   is   Artificial   increasing   light   in   at   most   night   .
    4. of   into   intrusion   light   night-time   The   artificial   our   .
    5. is   impairing   of   It   only   view   universe   not   our   the   .
    6. to   light   our   is   natural   a   environment   threat   Artificial   .
    7. pollutant   threatens   animals   environmental   that   nocturnal   An   .
    8. systems   may   entire   ecological   It   reshape   social   .
    9. they   using   are   LED   cheaper   lights   Cities   because   are   .
    10. decreased   light   time   -   Night   countries   16   in   .

    Circle the correct word (20 pairs)

    The amount and brightness / brighten of light from towns and cities around the world is at such a height / high level that it is reducing the darkness of night. Once upon a / the time, when night-time fell, we were plunger / plunged into darkness. Things are different, and brighter today. A study published in / on the journal Science Advances reports that artificiality / artificial light at night is increasing in most countries worldwide. Scientists say it grew / grown by 2.2 per cent a year between 2012 and 2016. The intrusion of artificial light into our night-time is causing them / us many problems. The International Dark-Sky Association says it, "is not only imparting / impairing our view of the universe, it is adversely / adverse affecting our environment, our safety, our energy consumption and our health".

    Study co-author Franz Holker said artificial light is a treat / threat to our natural environment. He said: "Artificial light is an environmental pollution / pollutant that threatens nocturnal / nocturne animals and affects plants and microorganisms." He added: "[It] has ecology / ecological and evolutionary implications for many organisms from bacterial / bacteria to mammals, including us humans, and may reshape entirety / entire social ecological systems." Many environmentalists thought the introduction / introductory of LED lights would help the planetary / planet. However, cities are using more LED lights because they are cheapened / cheaper, which is adding to the light pollution. Night-time light decreased in 16 countries, including war-torn nations such was / as Yemen and Syria.

    Talk about the connection between each pair of words in italics, and why the correct word is correct.

    Insert the vowels (a, e, i, o, u)

    Th_ _m__nt _nd br_ghtn_ss _f l_ght fr_m t_wns _nd c_t__s _r__nd th_ w_rld _s _t s_ch _ h_gh l_v_l th_t _t _s r_d_c_ng th_ d_rkn_ss _f n_ght. _nc_ _p_n _ t_m_, wh_n n_ght-t_m_ f_ll, w_ w_r_ pl_ng_d _nt_ d_rkn_ss. Th_ngs _r_ d_ff_r_nt, _nd br_ght_r t_d_y. _ st_dy p_bl_sh_d _n th_ j__rn_l Sc__nc_ _dv_nc_s r_p_rts th_t _rt_f_c__l l_ght _t n_ght _s _ncr__s_ng _n m_st c__ntr__s w_rldw_d_. Sc__nt_sts s_y _t gr_w by 2.2 p_r c_nt _ y__r b_tw__n 2012 _nd 2016. Th_ _ntr_s__n _f _rt_f_c__l l_ght _nt_ __r n_ght-t_m_ _s c__s_ng _s m_ny pr_bl_ms. Th_ _nt_rn_t__n_l D_rk-Sky _ss_c__t__n s_ys _t, "_s n_t _nly _mp__r_ng __r v__w _f th_ _n_v_rs_, _t _s _dv_rs_ly _ff_ct_ng __r _nv_r_nm_nt, __r s_f_ty, __r _n_rgy c_ns_mpt__n _nd __r h__lth".

    St_dy c_-__th_r Fr_nz H_lk_r s__d _rt_f_c__l l_ght _s _ thr__t t_ __r n_t_r_l _nv_r_nm_nt. H_ s__d: "_rt_f_c__l l_ght _s _n _nv_r_nm_nt_l p_ll_t_nt th_t thr__t_ns n_ct_rn_l _n_m_ls _nd _ff_cts pl_nts _nd m_cr__rg_n_sms." H_ _dd_d: "[_t] h_s _c_l_g_c_l _nd _v_l_t__n_ry _mpl_c_t__ns f_r m_ny _rg_n_sms fr_m b_ct_r__ t_ m_mm_ls, _ncl_d_ng _s h_m_ns, _nd m_y r_sh_p_ _nt_r_ s_c__l _c_l_g_c_l syst_ms." M_ny _nv_r_nm_nt_l_sts th__ght th_ _ntr_d_ct__n _f L_D l_ghts w__ld h_lp th_ pl_n_t. H_w_v_r, c_t__s _r_ _s_ng m_r_ L_D l_ghts b_c__s_ th_y _r_ ch__p_r, wh_ch _s _dd_ng t_ th_ l_ght p_ll_t__n. N_ght-t_m_ l_ght d_cr__s_d _n 16 c__ntr__s, _ncl_d_ng w_r-t_rn n_t__ns s_ch _s Y_m_n _nd Syr__.

    Punctuate the text and add capitals

    the amount and brightness of light from towns and cities around the world is at such a high level that it is reducing the darkness of night once upon a time when night-time fell we were plunged into darkness things are different and brighter today a study published in the journal science advances reports that artificial light at night is increasing in most countries worldwide scientists say it grew by 22 per cent a year between 2012 and 2016 the intrusion of artificial light into our night-time is causing us many problems the international dark-sky association says it "is not only impairing our view of the universe it is adversely affecting our environment our safety our energy consumption and our health"

    study co-author franz holker said artificial light is a threat to our natural environment he said "artificial light is an environmental pollutant that threatens nocturnal animals and affects plants and microorganisms" he added "[it] has ecological and evolutionary implications for many organisms from bacteria to mammals including us humans and may reshape entire social ecological systems" many environmentalists thought the introduction of led lights would help the planet however cities are using more led lights because they are cheaper which is adding to the light pollution night-time light decreased in 16 countries including war-torn nations such as yemen and syria

    Put a slash (/) where the spaces are

    Theamountandbrightnessoflightfromtownsandcitiesaroundtheworl
    disatsuchahighlevelthatitisreducingthedarknessofnight.Onceupona
    time,whennight-timefell,wewereplungedintodarkness.Thingsaredif
    ferent,andbrightertoday.AstudypublishedinthejournalScienceAdva
    ncesreportsthatartificiallightatnightisincreasinginmostcountrieswor
    ldwide.Scientistssayitgrewby2.2percentayearbetween2012and201
    6.Theintrusionofartificiallightintoournight-timeiscausingusmanypro
    blems.TheInternationalDark-SkyAssociationsaysit,"isnotonlyimpa
    iringourviewoftheuniverse,itisadverselyaffectingourenvironment,o
    ursafety,ourenergyconsumptionandourhealth".Studyco-authorFra
    nzHolkersaidartificiallightisathreattoournaturalenvironment.Hesaid
    :"Artificiallightisanenvironmentalpollutantthatthreatensnocturnala
    nimalsandaffectsplantsandmicroorganisms."Headded:"[It]hasecol
    ogicalandevolutionaryimplicationsformanyorganismsfrombacteriat
    omammals,includingushumans,andmayreshapeentiresocialecologi
    calsystems."ManyenvironmentaliststhoughttheintroductionofLEDli
    ghtswouldhelptheplanet.However,citiesareusingmoreLEDlightsbec
    ausetheyarecheaper,whichisaddingtothelightpollution.Night-timeli
    ghtdecreasedin16countries,includingwar-tornnationssuchasYeme
    nandSyria.

    Free writing

    Write about light pollution for 10 minutes. Comment on your partner’s paper.

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    Academic writing

    How can we reduce the amount of light pollution? Discuss three ways.

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    Homework

    1. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google’s search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word.

    2. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find out more about this news story. Share what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson.

    3. LIGHT POLLUTION: Make a poster about light pollution. Show your work to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all have similar things?

    4. DARK: Write a magazine article about reducing the amount of light at night in cities. Include imaginary interviews with people who are for and against this.

    Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down any new words and expressions you hear from your partner(s).

    5. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT? Write a newspaper article about the next stage in this news story. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Give each other feedback on your articles.

    6. LETTER: Write a letter to an expert on light pollution. Ask him/her three questions about it. Give him/her three of your ideas on this. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

    Answers

    (Please look at page 26 of the PDF to see a photocopiable example of this activity.)

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